what is relative deprivation and how does this link to the rise of far right
- as citizens fear the scarcity of resources when having to share with immigrants
- this can have a knock on effect with political dissatisfaction, who controlled for anti-immigration attitudes in his research and found that the number of non-western residents increased the far right
what are the two economic theories explaining
- Firstly states that there is scarce resources through benefit payments and low-paid jobs.
- The second being integration threat theory that outlines the conflicting interests of the economy
how does scarce resources lead to the rise of far right parties
The notion of scarce resources is supported by Alzheimer that found that manual workers and the unemployed showed more xenophobic attitudes thus increasing the far right vote share. This further links the fear immigration and scarce resources to the lower classes as this social cleavage feels the harsh effects of globalisation in relation to job insecurity.
what did Vlandas (2016) find about the relationship between unemployment benefits and voting for the far right
when unemployment benefit and dismissal regulation low there was a lesser chance of citizens voting for the far right. But when high, lower classes showed tendencies to vote for far right parties (Vlandas, 2016).
what is the social disintegration theory
states there is anxiety is brought through drastic changes in social structures, such as vast immigration
This can be associated with the increasing levels of European integration that has been advancing since the joining of the European Union
who states that the concern of national identity has been the driving force of the far right more than economic concerns
what is the cultural ethics theory?
it highlights the conflicting interests of cultural identities and ideologies (Lubbers, 2011). As a result, exclusionary reactions are enforced through conceptual measures of xenophobia.
Muddle argues that the success of the far right is heavily linked with the rise of what?
what are the four strands of theoretical accounts for extreme right support in europe
- social disintegration
- personality traits and value orientations of ER voters
- group conflicts
- ethnic competition
how does social disintegration lead to the rise of far right parties
it is characterized by a breakdown of social norms (anomia) and intense feelings of anxiety, anger and isolation brought by social change. Allegedly this mental state inspires a longing for strong leadership and rigid ideologies that ER provide
how does group conflicts lead to the rise of far right parties
some theories of scapegoating (blame minorities). Realist group conflict also states that if xenophobia is the result of a conflict between immigrants and lower-class natives over scarce resources, discrimination against immigrants, proliferation of racist stereotypes and support for the ER can be interpreted not as an emotive reaction but rather as part of an instrumental strategy. This is prominent in recent accounts
what theory does ethnic competition link with?
What were Jackman and Volpert’s (1996) findings surrounding unemployment and support for far right parties
found that ER benefits from high unemployment, higher electoral thresholds reduce the support for the ER and multipartyism in combination with a proportional electoral system is associated with higher levels of ER voting
what moderates the effects of far right parties bennefiting from immigration and unemployment
institutions of the welfare state
what idea do all far right parties share a common stance on
immigration, driven by nationalism
name three trigger factors that impact negatively on either the socio-economic status of voters of their expectations
economic crisis, globalisation
Relative deprivation thesis merges ____ with ___ ____ of voters. how does it do this?
focusing on the extent to which a deteriorating economic condition will worsen an individuals position, understood in comparison either with one’s own past or with another social group
realist conflict theory states that people are in competition over what? how does this lead to the rise of the far right
• Realistic conflict theory posits that people are in competition over scarce resources, understanding the rise of the far right in terms of a struggle for access to the collective goods of the state
how does unemployment lead to support for far right parties
- Economic arguments associates unemployment with far-right party support because of support or anti-system attitudes, linkages with unfavourable out-group attitudes and authoritarian attitudes
- Competition with immigrants and outsiders for jobs, welfare and, access to the collective goods of the state
what is social identity theory
• Social identity theory states that ant-immigrant sentiment revolves around self-esteem, therefore scape goat theory works well
example for countries with economic struggles but no success for the far right
• Spain and Portugal are examples of countries enduring serious economic struggles with limited to no far-right right success. This implies far right success is due to high migration
what did Lucassen and Lubbers state about where they expect right wing support to come from
far right parties trying to dominate the issue of protecting national identity, they expect that right wing support comes from people who fear threats to national identity