Fat Breakdown Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry II > Fat Breakdown > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fat Breakdown Deck (61):
1

TAG

Tri Acyl Glycerol

3 FA attached to glycerol

2

Acyl- CoA

Fatty acid attached to CoA

3

Acetyl CoA

2 carbon Acyl group attached to CoA

4

Fat storage form

TAGS

5

Essential FA

Linoleic Acid
Linolenic Acid

6

FA are essential if we

Lack desaturated to form the fats

7

Fats are energy dense because

Triglycerides are highly reduced

Anhydrous (compact more)

8

Energy triglycerides yield

9kcal/g

9

Vast majority of TGs are stored in

Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue

10

Only ___ of TGs are stored in skeletal muscle fibers

1-2%

11

Stored fat droplets are coated with

Perilipins

12

Fat digestion in stomach occurs due to

Lingual and gastric lipases

13

_____ are biological detergents

Bile salts

14

___ decreases the size of fat droplets in digestion

Peristalsis

15

Chyme enters small intestine and is

Emulsified

16

Most fat digestion occurs due to

Pancreatic enzymes

17

Pancreatic lipase

Creates FFA and monoacylglycerol

18

Cholesterol esterase creates

FFA and cholesterol

19

Phospholipase A2 breaks down

Phospholipids

20

CCK is released from

Cells in small intestine

21

CCK promotes

Gall bladder release of bile

Pancreatic release of digestive enzymes

22

Secretin produced by

Intestinal cells

23

Secretin promotes

Pancreatic release of bicarbonate

24

___ absorb fat micelles

Enterocytes

25

FFA, monoacylglycerol, and degraded phospholipids are converted back to ___ and ___ once they are absorbed by enterocytes

TAGs and phospholipids

26

___ are able to move into and out of enterocytes without modification

Short chain FA

27

TAGs and cholesterol are packaged into __ to be transported in the body

Chylomicron

28

Chylomicrons are released into

Lacteals

29

Chylomicrons enter blood through

Subclavian vein

30

Chylomicrons are made of a lipid core surrounded by

Phospholipids and apolipoproteins (B48)

31

____ on chylomicrons bind ____ on surface of cells

Apo C-2

LPL (lipoprotein lipase)

32

LPL is produced by

Muscle and fat cells

33

____ results in an increase in skeletal muscle LPL

Exercise

34

Lipolysis

Release of FA

35

Hormones that stimulate Lipolysis

Epinephrine
Glucagon

36

Hormones that inhibit Lipolysis

Insulin

37

ATGL

Adipose triglyceride lipase

38

HSL

Hormone sensitive lipase

39

MGL

Monoacylglycerol lipase

40

Acyltransferases

Opposite of lipases

Involved in triglyceride synthesis

41

Overview of Fat Burning

1. Mobilize
Get FA off glycerol
2. Activate
Attache FA to Co A
3. Beta Oxidation
Prepare molecule for Kreb’s
4. Enter Aerobic System
Krebs and ETS

42

FA released into blood and bind to _____ for Transport

Serum albumin

43

Glycerol shipped to liver converted to

DHAP

44

Any FA entering muscle to be oxidized must be chaperoned by a protein ______, escorting it to the surface of the mitochondria

FABPC

(Cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein)

45

Steps of beta oxidation in the mitochondria

1. Oxidation
2. Hydration
3. Oxidation
4. Thiolysis

46

To activate a FA, CoA must be attached to a FA to create Acyl CoA, via the enzyme

Acyl CoA Synthetase

47

Linking CoA to the FA in FA activation occurs in the

Outer mitochondrial membrane

48

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase complex consists of

1. CPT I
2. Acylcarnitine Translocase
3. CPT II

49

___ considered the rate limiting step in FA entering mitochondria

CPT I

50

Results of beta oxidation

1. FADH2
2. NADH
3. Acetyl CoA
4. Acyl CoA is two carbons shorter each time you run Beta oxidation

51

In unsaturated FA degradation, 2 additional enzymes are required

1. Reductive
2. Isomerase

52

Odd-chain FA degradation results in

Propionyl CoA

53

Propionyl CoA can be converted to

Succinyl CoA

54

Each round of beta oxidation releases

Acetyl CoA (2 carbon molecule)

55

Acyl CoA synthetase

Activates the FA for Transport into the mitochondria

56

Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase

First enzyme of OHOT
Oxidizes Acyl CoA

57

Inhibitors of fat burning

Insulin
High energy charge (ATP)
NADH or FADH2

58

Stimulators of fat burning

Epinephrine
Low energy charge
NAD or FAD

59

Under the control of insulin and degrades DAGS to MAGs

HSL

60

Acyl CoA is moved from cytosol into the matrix via ____ (uses CPTI, CPTII, and translocase)

Carnitine

61

B oxidation of saturated fat results in production of __ NADH and ___ FADH2

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