Flashcards in Fat Soluble Vitamins Deck (24):
All of the water-soluble vitamins are not stored with the exception of ________.
B12 (which is stored in muscle)
There are two sources of vitamin A in the diet: ______________.
- preformed retinyl palmitate (liver, dairy, eggs)
- beta-carotene (squash, carrots)
__________ spots are pathognomonic for vitamin A deficiency.
Bitot's (foamy, raised spots on the sclera)
Xerophthalmia is a non-specific finding of ___________ deficiency.
Vitamin A deficiency also leads to __________ impairment; supplementing to avoid deficiency has been shown to decrease all-cause mortality in children by about 25%.
What groups of people are at risk of vitamin A deficiency?
- those with severely restricted diets
- people with extremely low fat intake
- people with fat malabsorption
Vitamin A toxicity is only caused by ________________.
the preformed version (retinyl palmitate) that is found in cod oil or liver
____________ is a late finding in vitamin A deficiency.
Low serum retinol levels (because the liver has a high reserve of vitamin A)
Vitamin D is different from the other vitamins in that it is a ______________.
hormone (with specific receptors); most of the other vitamins are cofactors
What vitamin D levels are considered deficient, insufficient, and sufficient?
Deficient: less than 20 ng/mL
Insufficient: 20 - 30 ng/mL
Sufficient: greater than 30 ng/mL
By two months of age, breastfed infants should be given ______ IU of vitamin D3.
Why do those with sarcoidosis develop hypercalcemia?
Granulomas activate vitamin D.
Signs of vitamin E deficiency include _______________.
- loss of DTRs
- spinocerebellar ataxia
- hemolytic anemia
The neurologic findings of vitamin E deficiency are _____________.
Why are many infants deficient in vitamin K and D?
They are large molecules and don't pass through the placenta or ducts of the breasts.
The more potent form of vitamin D comes from ___________.
What foods contain vitamin E?
Vegetable oils and wheat germ
What symptoms are suggestive of vitamin E deficiency?
Neurologic changes (many different kinds) and hemolytic anemia,
What two fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies present with a rash (or general skin findings)?
K (purpura) and A
Increased ICP is a symptom of which vitamin toxicity?
Which fat-soluble vitamin is a negative acute phase reactant?
True or false: the form of vitamin D produced by the skin is already hydroxylated and does not need the liver to hydroxylate it.
False. All vitamin D (D3 from animal sources and the skin and D2 from plants) needs the two hydroxylations from the liver and kidney.
Those with liver or kidney disease are at risk of which vitamin deficiency?