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Flashcards in Fats Deck (51):
1

Essential Fatty Acids
- eicosanoids

Linoleic omega6
alpha Linolenic omega3

2

"beta oxidize fats" to ...

C2 units, AcetylCoA

3

"esterify" FA's to...

TG's
- stabilizes

4

"phosphatidyl"

fat anchor to nutrient so that it may travel to cell membrane
- TG group
- also see "acyl glycerol"

5

What does insulin cause the LR to do with acyl units (fat)?

esterifies them to TG's and releases to blood stream
- if no insulin (so no sugar avail), then LR will beta oxidize in mitochondria for Energy

6

What is cardiolipin?

phospholipid
- "diphoshatidylglycerol"
- inner membrane of mitochondria
- phosphate transporter, cytochrome oxidase activity

7

major site of cholesterol synthesis
- where

LR
- cytoplasm

8

Free fatty acids -> Cholesterol pathway

FFA -> Acyl CoA -> Acetoacetyl CoA -> HMG-CoA -> Mevalonate -> Squalene -> Desmusterol -> Cholesterol

9

Cholesterol synthesis:
rate limiting step

HMG CoA Reductase
HMGCoA ---> Mevalonate
inhibited by cholesterol

10

Cholesterol synthesis:
Mevalonate --> -->

IPP + DPP

- 5C isoprenoid isomers

11

Cholesterol synthesis:
IPP & DPP --> -->

Squalene -> Ianosterol -> Cholesterol

12

chylomicron receptor

Apo-E

13

LDL receptor

Apo-B

14

HDL receptor

A-1

15

VLDL -> IDL -> ?

LDL

16

HDL and LDL are synthesized by...

LR
- vs chylomicron - we get from diet

17

Why is HDL so good?

takes oxidized TG's from LDL, VLDL, chylomicrons and gives esterified cholesterol

18

LDL delivers cholesterol to peripheral tissues

for hormone synthesis and cell membrane

19

HDL at peripheral tissue

picks up extra cholesterol from cells

20

ACAT does what

takes free cholesterol and esterifies it to stabilize it in the peripheral tissue cells

21

CE Hydrolase does what

in peripheral tissue cells makes esterified cholesterol free to use for steroid synthesis

22

fat soluble antioxidant

tocopherols like vit E
- carried on LDLs

23

plasma antioxidant

ascorbate

24

rbc antioxidant

glutathione

25

eicosanoids -->

prostanoids

26

prostanoids include

Prostaglandins
Thromboxanes
Leukotrienes

27

Eicosanoids:
anti-inflammatory

series 1 and 3
linoleic, linolenic

28

Eicosanoids:
pro-inflammatory

arachadonic acid aka series 2

29

Where do you get linoleic acid (omega6)

vegetables, seeds, nuts

30

Where do you get alpha linolenic acid (omega3)

flaxseed

31

Where do you get Arachadonic Acid?

animal fats

32

Where do you get EPA/DHA?

fish... or from alpha-lenolenic acid

33

Eicosanoids:
if increase in Delta-5 Desaturase...

increase proinflam cytokines
series 2 and 1
- stimulated by insulin

34

Eicosanoids:
Series 1 & 3 use what enzyme to make anti-inflam enzymes?

Delta-6 Desaturase

35

Eicosanoids are made by

oxidation of 20C FA's

36

Which enzymes gets Arachadonic Acid out of the phospholipid membrane of a cell?

Phospholipase A2

37

Phospholipase A2 is stimulated and inhibited by?

Stimulated: Angiotensin ll, bradykinin, EPI, Thrombin
Inhibited: corticosteroids

38

NSAIDS block what enzyme? from making what?

Cyclooxygenase
- Arachodante --> PGs, Thromboxanes

39

Arachadonate --> Leukotrienes
enzyme?

Lipoxygenase

40

Which enzyme is affected by statin drugs?

HMG-CoA Reductase - inhibited preventing synthesis of mevalonate and thus cholesterol

41

Desmusterol --> Cholesterol
enzyme

Delta-24 Reductase

42

Esterification of what leads to TG's

Acyl CoA

43

HMG-CoA --> Mevalonate
enzyme

HMG-CoA Reductase

44

HMG-CoA --> Acetoacetate ( -> ketone)
enzyme

HMG-CoA Lyase

45

Enzyme responsible for breakdown of TG's in adipose cell to FFA's
Stimulate?
Inhibit?

Hormone Sensitive Lipase
- stimulated by EPI and Cortisol
- inhibited by insulin

46

Ketones are toxic to ? but can be used by what and what for E.

toxic to LR
- muscle and brain can use for E

47

How to get Fat into Mitochondria for E?
use?

CPT l
CPT ll
CAT

48

Where is CPT l and what does it do?

Outer mitochondrial membrane
- takes CoA off fat and puts carnitine on

49

Where is CAT and what does it do?

Inner mitochondrial membrane
- delivers fat to CPT ll and recycles Carnitine

50

Where is CPT ll and what does it do?

Inner mitochondrial membrane
- forces fat into mitochondria

51

Where does metabolism of the FFA take place?

LR