Fats & Proteins Flashcards Preview

Jason's Metabolism Block > Fats & Proteins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fats & Proteins Deck (43):
1

where do you get components for collagen and enzymes?

protein in diet

2

fat, carb or protein digestion most complicated?

protein

3

branched chain amino acids for sports performance?

nope.

4

what is major waste product for proteins?

Nitrogen, into urea

5

Protein stores located where?

proteins not stored

6

What happens to broken down amino acids?

stripped of carbon for fuel

7

water needed to break down carbs? fats?

Needed for carbs, not fats

8

How much energy per gram of fat? compared to carbs/proteins?

37kj/g
17kj/g

9

brain can't use what energy source? use what instead when glucose runs out?

can't use fats
can use ketones

10

Trans-fat increase your?

LDL

11

what is TAG?

triacylglycerol

12

What happens to triaylglycerol in metabolism?

glycerol > glucose via gluconeogensis
3FA > Ketones

13

Fats in digestion transported how?

chylomicrons in lymph bypassing liver

14

adipocyte is missing?

cytoskeleton in order to have more lipid storage

15

adipocytes make what hormone?

Leptin

16

liver cells with fat inside are spread out and patchy, why?

cytoskeleton

17

What 3 things can't use fat as fuel?

RBCs
Brain
Testes

18

fatty acids transported in blood via?

serum albmin

19

What is Carnitine?

transports Fatty acyl-CoA into mitochondria for oxidation. Rate limiting step in B-oidation

20

palmitate makes how many ATP?

106 ATP

21

What are acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutyrate and acetone used for?

Ketone mixture produced in mitochondria for energy (B-hydroxybutyrate only) Acetone is waste product.

22

too much ketones in blood leads to?

ketoacidosis: pH<7, = coma

23

How do you maintain glucose levels in starvation 2 weeks in after all glycogen is gone?

Gluconeogenesis using:
1. amino acids
2. glycerol from FFA

24

Omega 3 fats do what 3 things in body?

1. Inhibit thromboxane
2. promoted prostacyclin
3. inhibit leukotrienes (RA, inflam, etc.)

25

RDA of protein?

1g/kg

26

any protein in faeces?

very little

27

all proteins absorbed as amino acids?

Nope. some are di- or tri-
gluten is whole/partly digested, displayed = Coeliac disease

28

when you're growing, how is your nitrogen balance?

positive

29

what is the carrier effect in metabolism?

You lose 60 g of gut enzymes including essential amino acids. Need to eat the essential AAs to survive

30

What is Pellagra?

Niacin deficiency from lack of tryptophan (niacin precursor)

31

How does Pellagra usually occur?

Only eating corn

32

4 Ds in Pellagra?

dermatitis
diarrhoea
dementia
death

33

Legumes fixes nitrogen how?

bacteria in nodules

34

Toast is sweeter because of

Maillard reactions

35

What aminoacid is a nitrogen sink?

glutamate

36

what happens to carbons from protein turnover?

metabolic fuel

37

what happens to nitrogen from protein turnover?

waste: urea

38

What is Alanine cycle?

continuous: muscles carry excess nitrogen to liver/kidneys and back

39

how much urea do we excrete per day?

30grams

40

Gout is due to? cause? exacerbations?

uric acid crystals
Genetic
alcohol/beer

41

How to treat gout?

allopurinol
or antiinflammatories

42

tryptophan supplements?

Nope. can cause eosinophilia myalgia syndrome

43

Protein supplements and exercise?

No clear benefit