Flashcards in Fats & Proteins Deck (43):
where do you get components for collagen and enzymes?
protein in diet
fat, carb or protein digestion most complicated?
branched chain amino acids for sports performance?
what is major waste product for proteins?
Nitrogen, into urea
Protein stores located where?
proteins not stored
What happens to broken down amino acids?
stripped of carbon for fuel
water needed to break down carbs? fats?
Needed for carbs, not fats
How much energy per gram of fat? compared to carbs/proteins?
brain can't use what energy source? use what instead when glucose runs out?
can't use fats
can use ketones
Trans-fat increase your?
what is TAG?
What happens to triaylglycerol in metabolism?
glycerol > glucose via gluconeogensis
3FA > Ketones
Fats in digestion transported how?
chylomicrons in lymph bypassing liver
adipocyte is missing?
cytoskeleton in order to have more lipid storage
adipocytes make what hormone?
liver cells with fat inside are spread out and patchy, why?
What 3 things can't use fat as fuel?
fatty acids transported in blood via?
What is Carnitine?
transports Fatty acyl-CoA into mitochondria for oxidation. Rate limiting step in B-oidation
palmitate makes how many ATP?
What are acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutyrate and acetone used for?
Ketone mixture produced in mitochondria for energy (B-hydroxybutyrate only) Acetone is waste product.
too much ketones in blood leads to?
ketoacidosis: pH<7, = coma
How do you maintain glucose levels in starvation 2 weeks in after all glycogen is gone?
1. amino acids
2. glycerol from FFA
Omega 3 fats do what 3 things in body?
1. Inhibit thromboxane
2. promoted prostacyclin
3. inhibit leukotrienes (RA, inflam, etc.)
RDA of protein?
any protein in faeces?
all proteins absorbed as amino acids?
Nope. some are di- or tri-
gluten is whole/partly digested, displayed = Coeliac disease
when you're growing, how is your nitrogen balance?
what is the carrier effect in metabolism?
You lose 60 g of gut enzymes including essential amino acids. Need to eat the essential AAs to survive
What is Pellagra?
Niacin deficiency from lack of tryptophan (niacin precursor)
How does Pellagra usually occur?
Only eating corn
4 Ds in Pellagra?
Legumes fixes nitrogen how?
bacteria in nodules
Toast is sweeter because of
What aminoacid is a nitrogen sink?
what happens to carbons from protein turnover?
what happens to nitrogen from protein turnover?
What is Alanine cycle?
continuous: muscles carry excess nitrogen to liver/kidneys and back
how much urea do we excrete per day?
Gout is due to? cause? exacerbations?
uric acid crystals
How to treat gout?
Nope. can cause eosinophilia myalgia syndrome