Fatty Acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fatty Acids Deck (33):
1

What is a fatty acid?

Carbon chains with a carboxylic acid group (COOH) on one terminus and a methyl group (CH3) at the other terminus. 

2

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have ________________ or more double bonds. 

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have two or more double bonds. 

3

Omega-3 fatty acids have their _____ double bond at the 3rd carbon. 

Omega-3 fatty acids have their first double bond at the 3rd carbon. 

4

TRUE/FALSE

Free fatty acids are a term for fatty acids that are not attached to other molecules like glycerol. 

TRUE

Free fatty acids are a term for fatty acids that are not attached to other molecules like glycerol. 

5

TRUE/FALSE

Omega-6 fatty acids can be synthesized by the body. 

FALSE

Omega-6 fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body. This is why they are essential.

6

Omega-6 fatty acids are incorporated into ________ and then released into the intercelular spaces of the stratum corneum helping to form the barrier. 

Omega-6 fatty acids are incorporated into lamellar bodies and then released into the intercelular spaces of the stratum corneum helping to form the barrier. 

7

TRUE/FALSE

Barrier function of the skin would be fine without the presence of omega-6 fatty acids. 

FALSE

Barrier function of the skin would be deranged without the presence of omega-6 fatty acids. They are essential for barrier function. 

8

What is the main dietary source of omega-6 fatty acids?

Linoleic acid

9

What are the three metabolites of linoleic acid?

  1. Gamma-linoleic acid (GLA)
  2. Dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid (DGLA)
  3. Arachidonic acid (AA)

10

TRUE/FALSE

Western diets and most pet foods contain too little omega-6. This can lead to an overabundance of GLA. 

FALSE

Western diets and most pet foods contain too much omega-6. This can lead to an overabundance of AA

11

Explain to me why having too much omega-6 (and therefore too much AA) can be a problem.

When AA is released from cell membrane phosphilipids by PLA2, downstream modification of COX and LOX leads to production of more inflammatory eicosanoids. This can be problematic for patients with inflammatory disorders. 

12

What is the main dietary source of omega-3 fatty acids?

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)

13

What are the two metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid?

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  2. Doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

14

TRUE/FALSE

In general, conversion of ALA is very efficient. Therefore, DHA and EPA supplementation is not necessary. 

FALSE

In general, conversion of ALA is very inefficient. Therefore, DHA and EPA supplementation is recommended

15

Discuss competitive inhibition and displacement between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids compete with omega-6 fatty acids for the same metabolic enzymes. This results in less production and displacement of omega-6 fatty acids in phospholipids. You will have more EPA instead of more AA. 

EPA mediators (eicosanoids) are neutral, less inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory. 

16

Does it make sense to use topical omega-6 products vs. oral omega-6 products?

Why, yes, yes it does. 

This will help to avoid pro-inflammatory metabolites from AA. And, omega-6 is important in barrier function. This is why DermoScent SpotOn is an effective product. 

17

TRUE/FALSE

 

EPA mediators (eicosanoids) are neutral, less inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory. 

TRUE

 

EPA mediators (eicosanoids) are neutral, less inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory. 

18

TRUE/FALSE

Eicosanoids produced from EPA can directly counteract those produced by AA. 

TRUE

Eicosanoids produced from EPA can directly counteract those produced by AA. 

19

Does EPA or DHA have analgesic properties?

Yes! Downstream endogenous lipid mediators (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins) from EPA and DHA have analgesic properties and help signal the termination of actue inflammatory responses in cells and tissues. 

20

TRUE/FALSE

It has not been shown that omega-3 or omega-3/6 combinations have any efficacy as adjunctive therapy for pruritic and inflammatory dermatoses. 

FALSE

It has been shown that omega-3 or omega-3/6 combinations have any efficacy as adjunctive therapy for pruritic and inflammatory dermatoses. 

Saevic (2004) - lower prednisolone after 2mo

Mueller (2005) - lower CsA after 12 weeks

21

How long should you allow for an effect from fatty acid supplementation to be noticeable?

Initial = 4-5 weeks

Full effect = 8-12 weeks 

22

TRUE/FALSE

Supplementation of EPA/DHA can lead to a dose-dependent reduction in the expression of inflammation-induced cytokines like IL-1a, TNF-b and COX-1

FALSE

Supplementation of EPA/DHA can lead to a dose-dependent reduction in the expression of inflammation-induced cytokines like IL-1a, TNF-a and COX-2

Constitutive expression of Cox-1 is not affected.

23

TRUE/FALSE

There is a known optimum omega 3:6 ratio

FALSE

There is no known optimum omega 3:6 ratio

24

What gives fish their omega-3 content?

Algae! So - farm raised salmon has significantly less omega-3 than wild caught. 

 

25

What forms of fatty acids can you purchase? What is the big difference between them?

  • Triglycerides: typical, easily abdorbed, low concentrations of DHA/EPA
  • Re-esterified TG: Better, more $$
  • Ethyl esters: Common in humans, higher concentrations of DHA/EPA, poor absorption
  • Free fatty acids: High [DHA/EPA], well absorbed

26

What are phospholipids composed of?

Glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate group

A image thumb
27

Free fatty acids can be released from the _______ of a phospholipid by _________. 

Free fatty acids can be released from the glycerol of a phospholipid by phospholipase

28

ALA is elongated to make _____ and then ______. 

ALA is elongated to make EPA and then DHA

29

TRUE/FALSE

Alpha linolenic acid is an omega-6

FALSE

Alpha linolenic acid is an omega-3

30

What might be a side effect of fatty acid supplementation in cats?

Decreased platelets

Prolonged bleeding times

31

Essential fatty acids exhibit the potential to affect allergic inflammation through the modulation of _______ and _______ production. 

Essential fatty acids exhibit the potential to affect allergic inflammation through the modulation of prostaglandin and leukotriene production. 

32

TRUE/FALSE

The skin lacks both delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase enzymes. Therefore, it must process EPA from other organs. 

TRUE

The skin lacks both delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase enzymes. Therefore, it must process EPA from other organs. 

33

TRUE/FALSE

The skin is not able to produce arachidonic acid from its precursor linoleic acid.

TRUE

The skin is not able to produce arachidonic acid from its precursor linoleic acid.