Flashcards in Feilds And Particles Deck (134):

1

## What happens to the EMF creates by a generator when the frequency of the magnetic field variation is doubled

### EMF doubles

2

## How can the number of Atoms be worked out if you are only given the Activity and Half-life?

###
Decay C = ln2/Half Life

A = Decay C * N

3

## How can you work out the momentum of a Charge in an electric field?

###
eV = mv^2

P = mv

4

## What is the equation for Voltage Turns and Current in a transformer?

### V(p)/V(s) = N(p)/N(s) = I(s)/I(p)

5

## What’s the equation for voltage and current in a transformer?javascript:;

### V(p)I(p) = V(s)I(s)

6

## How can you find the speed required for stable orbit

### V = (GM/r)^0.5

7

## How can you find the ratio of GPEs or Field Strengths of 2 objects in orbit?

### Compare Relevant equations, changing values

8

## How can you calculate maximum flux linkage on a square coil

###
FL = Length^2 * Turns * Field Strength

Length is squared as coil is square

9

## What is a protons quark composition

### uud

10

## What is a neutrons quark composition

### ddu

11

## What is a delta - quark composition

### ddd

12

## What is a delta + quark composition

### uuu

13

## What is a mesons + quark composition

### ud-

14

## What is a Meson - quark composition

### du-

15

## Why do electrons lose energy during electron scattering

### Energy transferred to making new particles with KE

16

## During alpha particle scattering, what will happen to the number of deflected particles when energy of alphas is decreased

### It will increase as the amount of time spent close to the nucleus is increased

17

## How can the change in pressure do to temperature of a gas be calculated?

### P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

18

## When an electron passes through a magnetic fields why does its path curve?

### When a charged particle enters a magnetic field, it experiences a force which acts at right angles to the direction of field lines and velocity (Flemings LHR)

19

## When an electron passes through a magnetic fields why might it spiral?

### Collisions with gas monocles reduce its momentum causing it to slow down

20

## How can you increase a magnetic corse permeance

###
Shorter core

Fatter Core

Greater cross sectional area

More permeable material

21

## Show that Vm-1 and NC-1 are both units for electric field strength

###
V = JC-1

J = Nm

V = NmC-1

Vm-1 = NC-1

22

## Why is no EMF induced when a coil moves parallel to the line of flux?

###
No change in flux

EMF is proportional to change in flux

23

## Why are radio active decay equations involving the activity always a minimum value

### Because it assumes all beta particles released are accounted for

24

## How can relativistic speed be calculated?

### γ = 1/(1-V^2/C^2)^0.5

25

## How can a graph showing probabilities of energy spectrum of beta particles released during decay suggest that other particles are emitted?

###
Graph shows a range of energies

As all energy is conserved during the process, the remaining energy must have been taken by other particles

26

## What are the advantages and disadvantages of alloying metals?

### Stiffer, harder, corrosion resistant, reduced expansion

27

## What particles are leptons

###
electron, tauon, electron neutrino, anti electron neutrino, tauon neutrinon

And their anti particles (position etc.)

28

## When a particle is at terminal velocity, how can you find its drag?

###
Drag = Weight

Weight = Mg

29

## Suppose you could have a pendulum of length 100m with a very heavy mass at the end. Why would the accelerating force be very small for a displacement of a few mm

###
Displacement small to angle small

Force = mg sin x

30

## How does the movement of a magnet in a could endure an emf?

###
Movement cause the wires to pas through a change in flux linkage

This induces an emf according to the rate of change of flux

31

## Why does moving a conductive plate through a magnetic field cause a resistive force

###
Movement of plate induces and emf

Resulting in Eddie currents

Currents produce magnetic fields that oppose the motion

Loss of energy as heat I^2R

32

## What is the name of a particle with a mass of 0 and a charge of +1

###
A Positron

It can be a proton as protons have a mass

33

## When an electron beam passes between 2 plates (one grounded, one with positive potential) which direction will it bend towards

### The positive plate

34

## How can the shape of a flux line saddest what direction a magnet will move

### The flux line wants to straighten/tighten, so it will move in the direction that allows it to do this

35

## Why does reducing the air gap between the magnet and the core increase performance

### It increases the flux

36

## How do Eddie currents form and what are their effects

###
The changing flux in the iron core induce their own EMF which produces Eddie currents

The flux produced by the Eddie currents opposes the flux created in the primary coil due to lenses law

This causes a loss in efficiency due to heat

37

## How does laminating a core increase flux?

### Laminations limit Eddie currents, which would oppose existing emf

38

## Why is the actual force between to charged metal spheres less then the value calculated by f=kQq/r^2

### The charges migrate to the opposite ends of the sphere increasing the distance r

39

## During beta decay why is the KE of the beta particles less then the total energy released

### Genetic energy is taken by the neutrinos

40

## How can you tell the difference between neutrinos and anti neutrinos

### anti neutrons have a line across the top

41

## If an resistive PD is put across a circuit with the photo electric effect, what is the equation for finding the frequency of light

###
hf = hf0 + eVs

Where e is the charge of an electron, Vs is the resistive PD, and hf is the threshold frequency

42

## What is a space time diaragram

### Similar to a speed time diagram, but time is plotted on the y axis, and distance on the x. Arrows are plotted inside of lines, called world lines

43

## How can a space time diagram be used to measure distances and speeds in space

###
Pulses of radio waves are beamed towards an object sand reflected back. This is plotted on the space time diagram with the speed and time taken known. Therefore distance can be measured (assuming speed of light is the same for the way to the astroid, and the return journey)

Repeating this process lets us work out the speed the object is traveling

44

## As objects move closer to the speed of light, what happens to there length mass and time

###
Length: Decreases

Mass: Increases

Time: Slows down

45

## How can relativistic length be calculated

### Length = Length0/γ

46

## How can relativistic mass be calculated

### Mass = Mass0 * γ

47

## How can relativistic age and half life be calculated

###
Half-Life = γ*Half-Life0

Age = Age0/γ

48

## What is the Boltzmann factors and what causes it?

###
As the temperature of a substance increases, the particles gain KE (Average KE = KT)

Particles collide with each other and transfer KE. Its is possible for some particles to gain KE

As a result these particles can take part in an activation process (e.g. gas monocles leaving the atmosphere, or electrons moving from the valency band to the conduction band) which involves the breaking of bonds.

49

## Show that N increases as T increases due to Boltzmann factor

###
N=N0e^(-e/kT)

As T increases, kT increases, as kT increases, as kT increases e/kt decreases, as e/kt decreases, e^(-e/kt) increases, therefore N increases

50

## How can youmw0rk out the number of collisions required for a particle move up an energy level during he Boltzmann factor

### number of collisions needed is 1/fb

51

## How can you work out the momentum of an electron in the standing wave trapped in a box model

### Mv = h/wavelength

52

## How can you work out the total energy absorbed by a body fro, radiation over a period of time

### Energy = dose*mass*years

53

## How can you find the radius of an electron travelling through A magnetic field

### Bqr = Ke (of electron)

54

## How can maximum rate of change influx be calculated

###
Rate of change of flux = e/n

Where E is induced emf and n is number to turns

55

## When the magnet Falls through a coil of wire how is EMF induced and what form is it in

###
EMF is related to rate of change in flux

Induced EMF falls as more magnet enters coil

When magnet is fully inside EMF is zero

As the magnet leaves flux is decreasing so negative emf induced

56

## Explain how microwave background radiation is evidence of the Big Bang

###
Following the big bang, the universe was filled with gamma radiation, as the universe expanded the e-m radiation experienced a gradual wavelength increased

Estimates stated that the e-m radiation should have a wavelength in Microwave Region

In 1964 cosmic back ground radiation, and this was seen as further evidence to support the big bang theory

57

## Explain what the Hubble constant is and how the age of the universe can

###
Hubble plotted a graph of recession speed to distance of galaxies

The trend was directly proportional and thus created the equation:

V=H0*D

The gradient of the graph gives H0, 1/H0 gives the age of the universe

58

## How can spectral analysis be used to find speed of recession

###
Consider the spectrum of a source of hydrogen that is:

Stationary

Undergoing relative motion away from the observer

If the change in wavelength can be measured, the speed of recession v can be calculated using:

∆λ/λ=v/c

The fact the light received from distance stars is redshifted, it shows stars are moving away, this observation supports the big bang

59

## What is the equation for KE of a charge moving through an electric field

###
Energy = Vq = 1/2 mv^2

where v is PD and q is charge of a particle

60

## What is the equation for Electric Field Strength

###
E=V/d

where v is PD and d is the distance between plates

61

## What is the equation for force on a charge in an electric field

###
F = Eq = Vq/d

where v is PD and d is the distance between plates q is the charge of an electron, and E is the field strength

62

## What is the equations for the force on a charge in a magnetic field

### Force = Bqv = (mv^2)/r = mw^2 r

63

## What is the equation for velocity of a charge in a magnetic field

###
Bvq = (mv^2)/R

v = BqR/m

64

## What is the equation for the force of a particle in both a magnetic and electric field

###
Fe = Fb

Eq=Bvq

65

## Derive an Equation for the Average KE for a gases particles

###
pV = NkT

pV = 1/3 Nm(c^2)

1/3 Nm(c^2) = NkT

1/3 m(c^2) = kT

1/2 m(c^2) = 3/2 kT

66

## What is pair production and how can the minimum energy be calculated

###
A photon of EM radiation is converted into 2 particles, a particle and its antiparticle

During this process momentum and energy must be conserved

The minimum energy required to produce the particle antiparticle pair is given by:

E=2M C^2

Where M0 is the rest mass of each particles

67

## What is pair annihilation and how can the energy go each photon be calculated

###
When a particle and an anti-particle come together and produce 2 photons during mutual annihilation

Two photons must be produced to conserve the momentum and energy (this assumes particles are stationary)

The energy of each photon is given by:

E=M C^2

68

## What is the definition of binding energy

### Nuclear Binding energy is the energy required to split a nucleus into its constituent nucleons (protons and neutrons)

69

## How can during radioactive decay the proton number go up with the mass number stays the same during beta decay

### One of the Neutron converts to a proton, an electron, and an antineutron

70

## What are lepton Numbers

### All leptons have a lepton number of 1, all anti leptons have a lepton number of -1, all other particles have a lepton number of 0. The lepton number needs balanced

71

## Why is the Energy spectrum of beta particles continuous and not discrete as expected from the energy diagram?

### Energy is shared between the beta particles, and the neutrino in a random way

72

## How can wavelength of electrons be calculated if given only their momentum

###
Wavelength = h/p

where h is Plancks constant, and p is momentum

73

## Which Particles are Hadrons

### Protons and Neutrons

74

## What will happen ti flux density if cross sectional area is halved

### flux density halfs, flux stays the same

75

## Why are high temperatures needed to fission

### Energy needs to over come repulsive force between nuclei

76

## How is field strength related to distance in a radial field

### 1/r^2

77

## How is potential related to distance in a radial field

### 1/r

78

## Why can there be a field strength E but no potential, V between 2 equal and oppositely charged particles

###
Potential, V at mid point is equal at both, but charges are opposite (potential at MP is P1+P2) as potential is a scaler

Field Strength, E is also equal and opposite. (FS at MP is P1-P2) as F is a Vector

79

## How can you find relativistic velocity of an electron moving through a PD

###
γ = Total E/Rest E

γ = 1/(1-V^2/C^2)^0.5

80

## Whats the unit for rate of change in flux linkage

### JC-1

81

## What direction is field strength at equipotentials

### Outwards, away from max potential

82

## How do alternating currents vary during a motets complete revolution

###
Net flux is sume of coils 1 and 2

Direction of flux changes from max to min at each coils in XX seconds

By 2xx seconds its back to original

After 4xx seconds its back to original position

83

## How can 2 wave forms have equal pitch but different sounds

###
Same time period (frequency)

Most complex note in one has higher frequency components

84

## What materials does the photo electric effect work for

### Metals

85

## What is the work function

### The minimum energy required to liberate an electron from the surface of a metal

86

## What is the threshold frequency

### Tne minium frequency of a photon can have to liberate an electron from the surface of a metal

87

## What happens if a photon with an energy above the work function collides with a metal

### The extra energy is taken as KE

88

## What is the stopping voltage or stoppage potential

### The voltage required to stop an electron thats been emitted by the photo electric effect

89

## How can you derive an equation to find the stopping voltage required for a frequency of an photon

###
hf = hfo + Vse

Vse = hf - hfo

Vs = hf/e - hfo/e

Where Vs is stopping voltage fo os the threshold frequency and the x intercept is the threshold frequency

90

## How can you find the effect of changing a variable in an equation

###
Devide equation by each other

Cancel out constants leaving only variables

Put change in variables

91

## How can you work out the energy absorbed by a mass from radiation

### Exposure * Mass

92

## How can you work out energy absorbed per unit mass from radiation

### Energy Absorbed/Mass

93

## How can you find % of particles remaining after a given time from a radio active decay

###
No. Half Lives = Time Elapsed/Half Life

% remaining = 100 * 0.5^No.Half lives

94

## What is the wavelength of visible light

### 380-700nm

95

## When charging a glass ball with static electricity why won't the whole ball become charged

### Glass is an insulator, so charges can't move freely within it

96

## What is ohms law

### V=IR

97

## What are the names or particles made of quarks

### Hadron

98

## How can they determine the quark structure of a nucleon

### Deep Inelastic Scattering which is when they fire a stream of electrons towards a nucleus

99

## Why do we need to include neutrinos during radio active decay

### To account for the continuous energy spectrum of beta particles emitted during beta decay, and to balance the lepton numbers

100

## How can you find velocity form angular velocity and

### V=wr

101

## Which fundamental particles are involved with Weak and Strong interactions

###
Weak - Leptons

Strong - Hadrons

102

## Why can fission occur even though strong nuclear force is much greater then the electric repulsion force

### Strong nuclear force only binds with its nearest neighbours but the electro-repulsion force acts at an infinite distance

103

## How can you find the acceleration of an orbiting body of you know the field strength acting on it from the object is orbiting

###
Acceleration is equal to field strength

as G is acceleration due to gravity

104

## What are the units for force?

###
N

Jm-1

Kg m s-2

105

## When multiplying to values how do you find the percentage uncertainty

### Add percentage uncertainties of each value together

106

## Whats the ratio of flux on the primary and secondary coils of a transformer

###
Flux is equal across transformer

1:1

107

## Show that eV/C^2 is a unit for mass

###
eV/C^2 = J/m^2s^-2

N/ms^-2

Kg (as F=MA)

108

## In what direction do the field lines go across a PD

### From positive to 0

109

## How can you find the PD between to components across a circuit

### Find the cumulative PD across each component adding up to PD from cell. The PD change from one component to the other is the PD across that point

110

## How can you increase the sensitivity of a potential dividing circuit

### reduce the value of the fixed resistor, so the varying resistor has a greater range of PDs so sensitivity is increased

111

## Whats the lepton number of an electron

### -1

112

## Whats the equations force on a wire in a motor

### F=ILBN

113

## How can you find the power of a lens if given u and v

### 1/f=1/-1/u

114

## How can you find the PD of a solenoid producing a magnetic field, if given its diameter, number of turns, and current passing through it

###
Work out the length of wire

Work out the resistance of wire

V=IR

115

## Wy is the value calculated for EMF garnered from a ring roaring through a coil and average value

### The calculation from e = Dn/dt assumes a constant rate of change in flux

116

## Whats the magnetic equivalent for emf

### current turn (A)

117

## How can you find required launch velocity from a gravitational potential - distance graph

### 1/2v^2 = Initial Potenti/Max Potential

118

## How can you find the density of a nucleus if only given the ratio of nucleus to atomic radius ad the material density

###
Density = Mass/Volume

= Density/(ratio)^3

Assuming all mass in curious and no volume between nuclei

119

## During alpha particle scattering what will happen to the proportion of particles reflected if the material is made thicker

### Increase, as particles more likely to come close to a nucleus

120

## Why is dose calculated a maximum value

###
All energy may have not been absorbed by mass

May not all decay in area

121

##
How to find maximum Kinetic energy of an electron that requires 1.4v to stop

###
E = Vq

Where v is voltage

122

## Why is GPE always negative

###
GPE is 0 at an infinite distance

To move an object away from a plant towards infinity requires energy

Therefore GPE is negative

123

## How can you calculate voltage drop across a component

### V=IR

124

## How can you find the potential at a distance from. charged sphere

### 1/r

125

## Whats the potential on a charge particle in between 2 equally charged points

### O as its being attracted equally in both directions and potential is scalar

126

## As an electron passes close by a nucleus what path does it follow and why

### It swings past the nucleus and is deflected because the electron is attracted to the nucleus, and attraction increases the closer it gets to the nucleus therefore its path is deflected more as it gets closer to the nucleus

127

## How does laminating stop Eddie currents

### By separating layers with an insulator, current is less able to flow around the core reducing Eddie currents

128

## What are the main charge carriers in P type and n type semiconductors

### Fee electrons in n-type semiconductors and holes in p-type semiconductors are the charge carriers

129

## Why is there a stronger attraction between an electromagnet and a steel plates when in contract, then when separated by an air gap

###
Air has a much lower permeability than steel or the core Overall permeance of the magnetic circuit is much lower when air is present

Giving smaller flux

130

## During pair annihilation in a magnetic field, how can you tell charge has been conserved between a proton and neutron

###
Half will be deflected in one direction and half in the other direction showing there are equal amounts of positive and negative charges

131

## How can you work out the power per area if given the distance from the sun and the power at the sun

### Power at sun/4πr^2

132

## How can you find voltage produced by a photovoltaic if given KE of photons

### E=Vq

133

## How can you find the velocity of the earth relative to the sun from the speed before and after a grab slingshot

###
Ve+Vs = Speed Before

2Ve+Vs = Speed After

134