Female Repro II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Repro II Deck (30):

What are the three layers of the uterus?

perimetrium - thin outer layer (serosa)
myometrium - thickest middle layer; muscle not definitive in direction; contraction to force infant and placenta out
endometrium - bilayer portion that grows and shrinks during reproductive cycle


what are the two layers of the endometrium?

functional layer - expands and shrinks with the changing of hormonal levels in the body
basal layer - maintains itself steadily, little fluctuation from hormones


what types of arteries can you find in the uterus?

spiral arteries


what are the three broad phases of endometrial cycling?

menstrual phase, proliferative phase, secretory phase
proliferative phase and secretory phase are subdivided into early and late stages


what's happening during the menstrual phase?

discharge of endometrium and blood through the vagina; hormonal levels are low


early proliferative phase

repair phase; things are short, glands are small, epithelium repair is fast
estrogen levels are low but rising


late proliferative phase

glands coil, tremendous mitotic activity and growth, some edematous tissue; lots of estrogen in the system


early secretory phase

endometrium is maxed out in size (no more mitosis), glands highly coiled, glycogen granules form below the nuclei of glandular cells, edematous tissue extensive; progesterone levels are now rising or high


late secretory phase

glands are so tortuously coiled they now appear "back to back," secretory cells have ruffled appearance due to apocrine secretion, progesterone levels are through the roof, decidual reaction begins


post-late secretory phase (both possible outcomes)

pregnancy - decidual reaction continues and expands
no pregnancy - tissue layers begin to disintegrate; glands accordion and epithelial and gland cells start to die


what do decidual cells do?

they secrete factors necessary for fetal life


what are the two parts of the cervix called?

endocervix and ectocervix


what passageway is the external os?

between the ectocervix and the vagina


what passageway is the internal os?

between endocervix and uterus


characteristics of the endocervix

not as muscular as the uterus; secretes a protective mucous from the glands; mucous more viscous when estrogen levels are high (ferning pattern); columnar epithelium; metaplasia may cause cysts to form in crypts


characteristics of ectocervix

lined with squamous epithelium; site of transition normally around the external os (in reproductive age females); this is the area where cervical carcinomas are common; pap smears here


what are the three layers of the vagina? brief characteristics of these?

mucosa; muscularis; adventitia
mucosa - strat. squamous epithelium (non-keratinizing); highly vascularized
muscularis - CL and skeletal at the end
adventitia - elastic fibers


vaginal epithelium contents?

basal cells
prickle cell layer - contains Langerhans cells
glycogen containing cells - top layer (to make lactic acid)


changes in vagina due to hormone levels

high estrogen increases length and glycogen content
high progesterone decreases length and glycogen content


vaginal arousal controlled by:

vasculature in the lamina propria; no glands, so dependent on cervical mucous


post menopausal changes in vaginal epithelium

loss of glycogen containing cells, (thinner), this causes a rise in pH which can lead to more infections


how many glands in the breast? what structure?

15-20 branched tubuloalveolar glands


what two types of secretions and types are there from the mammary alveoli?

fats via apocrine mechanism; proteins from merocrine mechanism


mammary glands are surrounded by?

myoepithelium; controlled by oxytocin


what do you find in the supporting tissue around the mammary glands?

plasma cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, capillaries


what's the difference between the connective tissue between lobules and lobes?

lobules - dense septa
lobes - dense type I collagen with adipocytes


what happens to the epithelium in the ducts of the mammary glands?

it gets progressively taller - from cubodial to columnar to stratified columnar


what's the flow of nutrients inside the ducts?

small ducts to large ducts to lactiferous collecting duct below the nipple


what kinds of cells do you find in the resting breast?

mostly type I collagen and adipose


what kinds of specialized cells are there in the nipple?

smooth muscle cells that contract during excitation and sweat and sebaceous glands that are not associated with hair follicles