Flashcards in Female Repro II Deck (30):
What are the three layers of the uterus?
perimetrium - thin outer layer (serosa)
myometrium - thickest middle layer; muscle not definitive in direction; contraction to force infant and placenta out
endometrium - bilayer portion that grows and shrinks during reproductive cycle
what are the two layers of the endometrium?
functional layer - expands and shrinks with the changing of hormonal levels in the body
basal layer - maintains itself steadily, little fluctuation from hormones
what types of arteries can you find in the uterus?
what are the three broad phases of endometrial cycling?
menstrual phase, proliferative phase, secretory phase
proliferative phase and secretory phase are subdivided into early and late stages
what's happening during the menstrual phase?
discharge of endometrium and blood through the vagina; hormonal levels are low
early proliferative phase
repair phase; things are short, glands are small, epithelium repair is fast
estrogen levels are low but rising
late proliferative phase
glands coil, tremendous mitotic activity and growth, some edematous tissue; lots of estrogen in the system
early secretory phase
endometrium is maxed out in size (no more mitosis), glands highly coiled, glycogen granules form below the nuclei of glandular cells, edematous tissue extensive; progesterone levels are now rising or high
late secretory phase
glands are so tortuously coiled they now appear "back to back," secretory cells have ruffled appearance due to apocrine secretion, progesterone levels are through the roof, decidual reaction begins
post-late secretory phase (both possible outcomes)
pregnancy - decidual reaction continues and expands
no pregnancy - tissue layers begin to disintegrate; glands accordion and epithelial and gland cells start to die
what do decidual cells do?
they secrete factors necessary for fetal life
what are the two parts of the cervix called?
endocervix and ectocervix
what passageway is the external os?
between the ectocervix and the vagina
what passageway is the internal os?
between endocervix and uterus
characteristics of the endocervix
not as muscular as the uterus; secretes a protective mucous from the glands; mucous more viscous when estrogen levels are high (ferning pattern); columnar epithelium; metaplasia may cause cysts to form in crypts
characteristics of ectocervix
lined with squamous epithelium; site of transition normally around the external os (in reproductive age females); this is the area where cervical carcinomas are common; pap smears here
what are the three layers of the vagina? brief characteristics of these?
mucosa; muscularis; adventitia
mucosa - strat. squamous epithelium (non-keratinizing); highly vascularized
muscularis - CL and skeletal at the end
adventitia - elastic fibers
vaginal epithelium contents?
prickle cell layer - contains Langerhans cells
glycogen containing cells - top layer (to make lactic acid)
changes in vagina due to hormone levels
high estrogen increases length and glycogen content
high progesterone decreases length and glycogen content
vaginal arousal controlled by:
vasculature in the lamina propria; no glands, so dependent on cervical mucous
post menopausal changes in vaginal epithelium
loss of glycogen containing cells, (thinner), this causes a rise in pH which can lead to more infections
how many glands in the breast? what structure?
15-20 branched tubuloalveolar glands
what two types of secretions and types are there from the mammary alveoli?
fats via apocrine mechanism; proteins from merocrine mechanism
mammary glands are surrounded by?
myoepithelium; controlled by oxytocin
what do you find in the supporting tissue around the mammary glands?
plasma cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, capillaries
what's the difference between the connective tissue between lobules and lobes?
lobules - dense septa
lobes - dense type I collagen with adipocytes
what happens to the epithelium in the ducts of the mammary glands?
it gets progressively taller - from cubodial to columnar to stratified columnar
what's the flow of nutrients inside the ducts?
small ducts to large ducts to lactiferous collecting duct below the nipple
what kinds of cells do you find in the resting breast?
mostly type I collagen and adipose