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Flashcards in Female Reproductive I Deck (66)
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What organs are found in the female reproductive system?

paired ovaries
uterine/fallopian tubes
external genitalia


Briefly describe the hormonal pathway that leads to the synthesis and release of FSH and LH.

1. neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus synthesize and secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH)
2. gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland are influenced by Gn-RH to synthesize and release FSH and LH


What produces estrogen and progesterone (PG)?

the granulosa cells surrounding a maturing oocyte


What is the function of FSH?

stimulates the maturation of an ovarian follicle and prepares the enclosed oocyte for ovulation


What stimulates ovulation?

The LH spike at midcycle stimulates ovulation


Define ovulation.

the release of an oocyte from the ovary


What is the corpus luteum and from what is it formed?

- a temporary endocrine gland
- granulosa cells that remain embedded in the ovarian cortex


What causes the drop in estrogen and PG levels that causes the endometrium to shed?

- degeneration of the corpus luteum of menstruation after 14 days into the corpus albicans


What maintains the corpus luteum if pregnancy occurs?

hCG released by syncytiotrophoblast of the chorion

- the corpus luteum of pregnancy will continue to produce estrogen and PG to maintain the endometrium and pregnancy


Describe the epithelium of the ovary.

simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium

*70% ovarian cancers arise from this epithelium


What is the dense irregular collagenous CT around the ovary?

Tunica albuginea

-protective function


In what area of the ovary do eggs mature?

in the cortical region


Describe the cortical region of the ovary.

- connective tissue stroma with smooth muscle fibers and many ovarian follicles
- compact


What part of the ovary is described as a spongy stroma of loose connective tissue and numerous blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves?

Medullary region
- this is the "core" of the ovary


What three things does the ovary produce?

- eggs
- estrogen
- progesterone


True or False: The ovarian surface is dimpled prior to puberty. It becomes smooth in reproductive years due to the diminishing number of eggs.


Ovarian surface is smooth prior to puberty. It becomes dimpled in reproductive years due to the tiny scars that form after each ovulation.


Define oogenesis.

Process by which mature ova are produced


True or False: Female infants are born with all the immature oocytes she will ever have.


-At birth, ovaries contain 700k immature oocytes.
-Thousands undergo atresia and by first period there are about 200k
-Oocytes are stored in the ovaries throughout the woman's reproductive years


When does one oocyte begin to be released from the ovary each month?

One year after menarchy (first period)


How many chromosomes are in a haploid cell? diploid cell?

haploid (n) =23 chromosomes
diploid (2n) = 46 chromosomes


Sex cells are ______ and contain __ chromosomes. Somatic cells are _______ and contain __ chromosomes.

- sex cells= gametes= egg/sperm are haploid and contain 23 chromosomes
- somatic cells are diploid and contain 46 chromosomes


Define 1d.

amount of DNA in 23 single chromatid chromosomes


How would one arrive at a DNA content of 2d?

23 double chromatid chromosomes OR amount of DNA in 46 single chromatid chromosomes


What is the amount of DNA in 46 double chromatid chromosomes?


bonus: what would be an example of a cell with 4d?


True or False: meiosis occurs in all cells.


Meiosis is a reduction division which occurs only in germ cells- not somatic cells


What do the 2 sequential meiotic cell divisions of oogenesis produce?

A single mature ovum and 3 polar bodies


When do chromosomes in primordial germ cells prenatally duplicate?

Prior to Meiosis I, they duplicate during the S phase of interphase to form 2n-4d chromosomes


When does meiosis I begin? stop? begin again?

- Prenatally
- Prophase stage
- Prior to ovulation of an oocyte


When is a primordial germ cell referred to as a primary oocyte?

once a primordial germ cell enters meiosis I, it is referred to as a primary oocyte


What is an oogonia? is it present at birth?

- primordial germ cell that has undergone many mitotic divisions and is located in the ovary (2n-2d)
- not yet a primary oocyte
- oogonia are NOT present at birth, since they all differentiate into primary oocytes