Female Reproductive II Flashcards Preview

Cell Bio Test IV > Female Reproductive II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive II Deck (36):
1

When does meiosis I resume? What causes it to resume?

LH surge causes progression of meiosis I

Just prior to ovulation (within 12 hours)

2

When does meiosis II start?

Right after meiosis I - no delay
Then stops at metaphase II

3

What is the follicular stigma?

A clear spot which forms on ovary over folicle, as blood flow to this area ceases (just prior to ovulation - like a zit)

Proteases then break down cortical stromal tissue covering follicle

4

What covers the Graafian cell when it ovulates?

Zona pellucida

Granulosa cells

5

Which cells form the corpus luteum?

Granulosa cells

Theca cells

Become temporary endocrine gland

6

How do pregnancy tests work?

detect hCG

7

What happens if oocyte isn't fertilized?

Corpus luteum becomes CL of menstruation, produces estrogen and PG for 2 weeks

Degenerates and becomes corpus albicans

Drop in estrogen/PG causes endometrium to shed

8

What happens if fertilization and implantation occur?

Corpus luteum becomes CL of pregnancy

Maintained by hCG, which is from syncytiotrophoblast of chorion

9

What's the corpus albicans?

Dense CT scar formed after corpus luteum regresses after menstruation/pregnancy

10

What do granulosa cells/theca interna cells differentiate into?

Granulosa lutein cells/theca lutein cells

??????

11

Polycystic ovarian disease

Due to abnormally thickened TUNICA ALBUGINEA

Results in many fluid-filled follicular cysts; no ovulation, ovaries have smooth surface

Possibly due to excess androgen production

Pt doesn't get CL, no PG; treat with hormone therapy to get normal estrogen/PG ratio

12

Stein-Leventhal syndrome

Polycystic ovarian disease + oligomenorrhea =

13

What do ZP-1, ZP-2, and ZP-3 do?

Zona Pellucida glycoproteins
1 - unknown
2 - secondary spermatozoa-binding protein

3 - most important: spermatozoa-binding receptor, and INDUCES ACROSOME REACTION

14

What do sperm first have to pierce on the egg?

Corona radiata (granulosa cells surrounding oocyte)

Then come in contact with ZP

15

What is the acrosome reaction?

Acrosome on sperm releases enzymes - hyaluronidases - which allow single sperm to perforate ZP

16

What else does a sperm need to penetrate ZP, in addition to acrosome reaction?

Hyperactivation reaction

Influx of Ca2+ into sperm's tail

17

Where does the egg normally get fertilized?

Fallopian tube
Specifically, the Ampulla

18

What's an ampulla?

Dilated portion, 2/3 of length;
longest and widest part

19

Infundibulum of uterine tube

Trumpet-shaped part of uterine tube

Free end opens into peritoneum

Fimbriae capture oocyte and bring it into lumen

20

Isthmus of uterine tube

Connects tube to uterus, very narrow

21

Uterine part of uterine tube

extends into uterine wall

22

Layers of uterine tube? (4) Tell me all about them.

Mucosa
- Longitudinal folds, most numerus in ampulla; folding increases surface area

Epithelium - simple COLUMNAR
- Ciliated cells
- Non-ciliated cells

Muscularis
- Smooth muscle
- Produces rhythmic peristaltic waves - facilitates movement of oocyte from INFUNDIBULUM to AMPULLA

Serosa
- Mesosalpinx, invests uterine tube
- visceral peritoneum

23

Which cells protect and nourish oocyte, sperm, or zygote in the uterine tube?

Non-ciliated peg cells of epithelium

Ciliated cells of epithelium sweep oocyte in direction of the uterus

24

Which layer of uterus sloughs off?

Functional layer

In pregnant women, is called decidua

25

What are the layers of the endometrium?

Epithelium - simple columnar
- ciliated cells
- nonciliated secretory cells (secrete glycoprotein)

Lamina propria
- contain SIMPLE BRANCHED TUBULAR GLANDS
- Contains stratum functionale and stratum basale

26

What's special about stratum basale?

Remains to repave functional layer

27

Arcuate arteries vs Spiral arteries vs Straight arteries of uterus

Arcuate arteries - in middle layer of myometrium, from uterine artery; circumferentially oriented

Radial arteries:
Spiral arteries - supply functional layer
Straight arteries - supply basal layer

28

Layers of the myometrium

This is a smooth muscle
- Inner longitudinal
- Middle circular layers - with larger blood vessels
- Outer longitudinal layer

During pregnancy, myometrium both hypertrophies and undergoes hyperplasty

29

Layers of perimetrium

Outer layer of uterus; consists of either:

Serosa - mesothelium and loose CT
Adventitia - CT which attaches to surrounding structures

30

Cervix

Simple comlumnar epithelium

Fibrous dense CT

Vagina - Stratified squamous nonkeratinized

Mucosa - cervical glands = branched, mucous

31

What are nabothian cysts?

Obstructions of mucosal ducts of cervical glands

Hormones influence amount and consistency of mucosal production; at midcycle mucus production increases 10X and is less viscous, easing sperm migration

32

Menstrual phase

First 1-4 days of period
PG, Estrogen declines
Smooth muscle in wall of spiral arteries contract
Blood flow to functional layer decreases, becomes necrotic
Blood vessels break off, functional layer sloughs off - menses

33

Proliferative phase

Days 4-15

Uterine mucosa consists of lamina propria with basal portions of the glands

Estrogen stimulates proliferation of epithelium, glands, vessels

Glands consist of straight tubules lined with simple columnar epithelium

Spiral arteries grow into repaved endometrial stroma

34

Secretory phase

Days 15-28

Starts after ovulation
PG stimulates glands to release glycoproteins - nourishes blastocyst
Glands become coiled
Spiral arteries grow into functional layer of endometrium

35

Uterine leiomyomas

Most common benign tumor

Have "whorled" appearance when sectioned

Can increase bleeding during menses, increase spontaneous abortions and postpartum hemorrhage

About 1% turn into malignant leiomyosarcomas

36

Mammary gland

See slides of resting mammary gland vs lactating mammary gland

Compare mammary gland with thyroid

Compound tubualveolar glands