Flashcards in Female Reproductive II Deck (36):
When does meiosis I resume? What causes it to resume?
LH surge causes progression of meiosis I
Just prior to ovulation (within 12 hours)
When does meiosis II start?
Right after meiosis I - no delay
Then stops at metaphase II
What is the follicular stigma?
A clear spot which forms on ovary over folicle, as blood flow to this area ceases (just prior to ovulation - like a zit)
Proteases then break down cortical stromal tissue covering follicle
What covers the Graafian cell when it ovulates?
Which cells form the corpus luteum?
Become temporary endocrine gland
How do pregnancy tests work?
What happens if oocyte isn't fertilized?
Corpus luteum becomes CL of menstruation, produces estrogen and PG for 2 weeks
Degenerates and becomes corpus albicans
Drop in estrogen/PG causes endometrium to shed
What happens if fertilization and implantation occur?
Corpus luteum becomes CL of pregnancy
Maintained by hCG, which is from syncytiotrophoblast of chorion
What's the corpus albicans?
Dense CT scar formed after corpus luteum regresses after menstruation/pregnancy
What do granulosa cells/theca interna cells differentiate into?
Granulosa lutein cells/theca lutein cells
Polycystic ovarian disease
Due to abnormally thickened TUNICA ALBUGINEA
Results in many fluid-filled follicular cysts; no ovulation, ovaries have smooth surface
Possibly due to excess androgen production
Pt doesn't get CL, no PG; treat with hormone therapy to get normal estrogen/PG ratio
Polycystic ovarian disease + oligomenorrhea =
What do ZP-1, ZP-2, and ZP-3 do?
Zona Pellucida glycoproteins
1 - unknown
2 - secondary spermatozoa-binding protein
3 - most important: spermatozoa-binding receptor, and INDUCES ACROSOME REACTION
What do sperm first have to pierce on the egg?
Corona radiata (granulosa cells surrounding oocyte)
Then come in contact with ZP
What is the acrosome reaction?
Acrosome on sperm releases enzymes - hyaluronidases - which allow single sperm to perforate ZP
What else does a sperm need to penetrate ZP, in addition to acrosome reaction?
Influx of Ca2+ into sperm's tail
Where does the egg normally get fertilized?
Specifically, the Ampulla
What's an ampulla?
Dilated portion, 2/3 of length;
longest and widest part
Infundibulum of uterine tube
Trumpet-shaped part of uterine tube
Free end opens into peritoneum
Fimbriae capture oocyte and bring it into lumen
Isthmus of uterine tube
Connects tube to uterus, very narrow
Uterine part of uterine tube
extends into uterine wall
Layers of uterine tube? (4) Tell me all about them.
- Longitudinal folds, most numerus in ampulla; folding increases surface area
Epithelium - simple COLUMNAR
- Ciliated cells
- Non-ciliated cells
- Smooth muscle
- Produces rhythmic peristaltic waves - facilitates movement of oocyte from INFUNDIBULUM to AMPULLA
- Mesosalpinx, invests uterine tube
- visceral peritoneum
Which cells protect and nourish oocyte, sperm, or zygote in the uterine tube?
Non-ciliated peg cells of epithelium
Ciliated cells of epithelium sweep oocyte in direction of the uterus
Which layer of uterus sloughs off?
In pregnant women, is called decidua
What are the layers of the endometrium?
Epithelium - simple columnar
- ciliated cells
- nonciliated secretory cells (secrete glycoprotein)
- contain SIMPLE BRANCHED TUBULAR GLANDS
- Contains stratum functionale and stratum basale
What's special about stratum basale?
Remains to repave functional layer
Arcuate arteries vs Spiral arteries vs Straight arteries of uterus
Arcuate arteries - in middle layer of myometrium, from uterine artery; circumferentially oriented
Spiral arteries - supply functional layer
Straight arteries - supply basal layer
Layers of the myometrium
This is a smooth muscle
- Inner longitudinal
- Middle circular layers - with larger blood vessels
- Outer longitudinal layer
During pregnancy, myometrium both hypertrophies and undergoes hyperplasty
Layers of perimetrium
Outer layer of uterus; consists of either:
Serosa - mesothelium and loose CT
Adventitia - CT which attaches to surrounding structures
Simple comlumnar epithelium
Fibrous dense CT
Vagina - Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
Mucosa - cervical glands = branched, mucous
What are nabothian cysts?
Obstructions of mucosal ducts of cervical glands
Hormones influence amount and consistency of mucosal production; at midcycle mucus production increases 10X and is less viscous, easing sperm migration
First 1-4 days of period
PG, Estrogen declines
Smooth muscle in wall of spiral arteries contract
Blood flow to functional layer decreases, becomes necrotic
Blood vessels break off, functional layer sloughs off - menses
Uterine mucosa consists of lamina propria with basal portions of the glands
Estrogen stimulates proliferation of epithelium, glands, vessels
Glands consist of straight tubules lined with simple columnar epithelium
Spiral arteries grow into repaved endometrial stroma
Starts after ovulation
PG stimulates glands to release glycoproteins - nourishes blastocyst
Glands become coiled
Spiral arteries grow into functional layer of endometrium
Most common benign tumor
Have "whorled" appearance when sectioned
Can increase bleeding during menses, increase spontaneous abortions and postpartum hemorrhage
About 1% turn into malignant leiomyosarcomas