Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (71):
_____ (this singular form of this word is _____), the gametes produced by the female, are
produced by the _____.
Ova; ovum; ovaries
The ovaries are within the _____, 3-4 cm to each side of the medial plane and just above
the level of the pubis.
All of the internal female reproductive organs, including the ovary, are held in place by the
_____, which is part of the peritoneum. The part of this which anchors the ovary itself is
broad ligament; mesovarium
An extension of the broad ligament projects from the top of the ovary to the pelvic wall,
and is called the _____. It forms a tube which surrounds the _____. The bottom of the
ovary is anchored to the uterus by the _____.
suspensory ligament; ovarian
blood vessels; ovarian ligament
The ovary itself consists of two regions with _____ boundaries: the central medulla and
the outer cortex. Each ovary is surrounded by the firm and fibrous _____ and a layer of
simple cuboidal epithelia, the _____.
imprecise; tunica albuginea;
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves all travel directly to the _____ of the ovary.
The ovarian cortex contains many _____, millions of which are formed before birth by
division of the _____ as _____ begins. Unlike the male, gamete formation in females
takes many years.
primary oocytes; oogonia;
The primary oocytes are arrested in _____ . Only hundreds of the
original millions will ever progress through the remainder of the cycle.
The primary oocytes become surrounded by _____ shortly after their formation; the
resulting structure is called a(n) _____. In the adult, hundreds of thousands of these can
be observed in the _____; the rest of the original millions have died.
a single layer of follicle cells;
primordial follicle; ovarian
_____ follicles can be dormant for decades. They are very small. The oocyte is
surrounded by a single layer of squamous cells.
After puberty and through middle age, cyclic hormonal changes control a roughly _____
day _____ cycle. (The exact length varies.) It includes a few days of mild
bleeding, the onset of which is easily noted and is thus designated as _____.
28; menstrual; day 1
Ovarian follicles which have matured to the _____ stage are several mm in diameter, and
cause the ovary to look like a small bag of marbles.
Ultimately, one Graafian follicle reaches full maturity. The primary oocyte completes
_____ to form a small _____ and a larger _____ which, along with a cluster of cells from
the cumulus mass, the _____, are released when the follicle ruptures.
meiosis I; polar body;
secondary oocyte; corona
Although it may undergo one more cell division, the _____ is destined to die. The
secondary oocyte needs all of the nutrient-containing cytoplasm in case fertilization
first polar body
The rupture of a Graafian follicle and release of the secondary oocyte is called _____.
On very rare occasions, two follicles mature and rupture together. Conception and birth
resulting from these events gives rise to _____.
non-identical (fraternal) twins
The cells of the dominant Graafian follicle which remain in the ovary after ovulation
increase in size and form a yellow endocrine gland called the _____. This secretes _____
(and a relatively small amount of _____).
corpora luteum; progesterone;
If pregnancy occurs, the corpora luteum is maintained until _____; if not, it degenerates in
roughly _____ and forms a small white scar, the _____.
the placenta is functional; 14
days; corpus albicans
The time prior to ovulation is the _____, named for the developing Graafian follicles, and
the time following it, the _____, named after the _____.
follicular phase; luteal phase;
The secondary oocyte which was released during ovulation is carried by the _____ away
from the ovary and toward the _____. (Each ovary has such a structure leading away from
fallopian tube OR uterine tube
OR oviduct; uterus
Although the uterine tubes widen to form the _____, a funnel-shaped region near the
ovary, and this possesses fingerlike structures called _____ which surround the ovary,
there is _____ between them. Some oocytes are lost into the _____.
infundibulum; fimbriae; no
contact; abdominal (peritoneal)
The surface of the fimbriae which faces the ovary is _____, and the motion of the cilia
greatly increases the odds that the oocyte will follow the correct path
The longest region of the uterine tube is the wide _____; it is here that the sperm and
oocyte usually meet.
Until and unless the secondary oocyte meets a sperm, it remains in _____. If it does meet
a sperm, it continues division and a mature _____ (already fertilized!) and a(n) _____
meiosis II; ovum; polar body
The walls of the uterine tube are _____ and the inner surface is _____; the oocyte is
propelled actively toward the uterus. The inner surface also contains secretory cells which
secrete _____ and _____.
muscular; ciliated; lubricating
The outermost layer of the uterine tubes is _____, continuous with the _____. The uterine
tube is held in place by a division of the _____ called the mesosalpinx.
serosa; peritoneum; broad
From the uterine tube, the oocyte - whether it has been fertilized or not - enters the _____
of the uterus, the uppermost largest region. From there it proceeds to the _____ of the
uterus; if fertilization has occurred, this is where it is likely to stay.
The uterus is a highly muscular organ, supported by a portion of the _____ ligament, as
well as the _____ ligament at the cervix, the _____ ligament in the back, and the _____
ligaments in the front (which actually leave the abdominal cavity and wrap around the
pubis to reach the genitals)
broad; lateral cervical;
The outermost layer of the uterus is the _____; the thick muscular layer the _____; and
the inner layer the _____, which includes a region that grows thicker in preparation for
pregnancy, and is then discarded if no pregnancy occurs.
The _____ of the uterus is a small, donut-shaped gateway, closed by mucus to protect
the uterus until ovulation makes conception possible.
At the same time that the follicle is maturing, the uterus is preparing itself for _____ 'just in
The endometrium of the uterus has two layers: the _____ is the functional layer, which
cyclically grows thicker and develops a rich blood supply, then dies back. Farther from the
lumen of the uterus is the _____, from which the functional layer grows.
stratum functionalis; stratum
Although the 'menstrual cycle' generally refers to all of the cyclic reproductive changes which occur in the young adult female, the phrase is sometimes used to refer specifically to the ____.
Because it is easy to identify without ambiguity, the first day of the uterine cycle is the day
on which the _____ of the endometrium begins to be shed, emerging from the vagina
together with blood in a process called _____.
Approximately the first _____ days of the uterine cycle constitute the _____ phase, during
which the surface of the endometrium is shed and discarded via the vagina.
During the first few days of the menstrual cycle, follicles within the ovary are beginning to
mature, and as they do they secrete _____. As the follicles get larger, the levels of this
hormone rise, and the endometrium of the uterus responds by _____.
estrogens; growing thicker
The phase of the uterine cycle during which the stratum functionalis of the uterus is
growing thicker is the _____. It begins around day _____ and lasts for roughly _____
proliferative phase; 6; 8
The proliferative phase of the uterine cycle ends when _____, secreted by the corpus
luteum after ovulation, signals the endometrium that pregnancy could occur at any
moment. The stratum functionalis is converted to a(n) _____ in response.
The phase of the uterine cycle following ovulation is the _____ phase, and corresponds to
the _____ phase of the ovarian cycle. Its starting date varies somewhat, since the time of
ovulation varies, but it lasts almost exactly _____ days.
secretory; luteal; 14
During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle, _____ within the endometrium develop
and begin secreting fluid which contains glycogen, which could serve as fuel for the
embryo until it can obtain it from the mother.
If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degrades and so progesterone levels fall.
Without progesterone, the _____ (which supply blood to the endometrium) spasm and
the _____ dies. Ultimately, these spasms cause the dying tissue to detach.
spiral arteries; stratum
If fertilization has not occurred, the egg will eventually be washed into the lower region of
the uterus, the _____, and from there through the _____, then the _____, and finally out
of the body.
isthmus; cervix; vagina
The vagina is a thin tube which connects the cervix to the exterior of the body. It consists
of three layers; the luminal _____, the _____, and the innermost _____.
mucosa; muscularis; adventitia
Despite the name of the luminal layer, the vagina lacks mucous glands: mucus is provided
by the _____, and an acid environment which discourages the growth of pathogens is
maintained by _____.
cervix; symbiotic bacteria
The outer opening of the vagina is sometimes closed or partially closed at birth by a
membrane called the _____. (The presence of this membrane varies from person to
The upper end of the vagina extends upward to surround the cervix, forming a recess
called the _____.
After ovulation, the conversion of the remaining follicle cells to the corpus luteum is
stimulated by _____.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
The secretion of estrogens by ovarian follicles is a two part process: _____ stimulates the
theca interna to produce androgens, and _____ stimulates the granulosa cells to convert
androgens to estrogen.
FSH and LH release are controlled by _____, which is produced by the _____.
Secretion of both FSH and LH is stimulated by a very high level of _____, so that as the
follicles reach maturity, the FSH and LH levels _____. The surge in LH levels triggers
estrogen; surge; ovulation
After ovulation, one of the hormones released by the corpus luteum, _____, has a direct
negative effect on LH and FSH release.
In developed countries, menstruation generally begins between the ages of 11-12: the
exact age depends on many factors including _____. The first menstrual cycle is called
The menstrual cycle does not continue throughout a woman's life: it generally stops in
middle age, in a process or condition called _____.
The vagina opens into an indentation called the _____. It is immediately posterior to the
opening of the _____.
The vestibule is flanked on either side by thin folds of sensitive skin called the _____
(each one is a single _____). These meet anteriorly to form the _____, a hoodlike
covering for the _____, which is the center for much of a female's sexual sensation.
labia minora; labium minus;
The clitoris contains two tubes of erectile tissue (as does the penis in the male), the
_____. Although much smaller, the clitoris, like the male penis, becomes erect. Thus
usually results only in an increase in _____, not in _____.
corpora cavernosa; diameter;
Deep within the vestibular floor, on either side of the vagina, erectile tissue corresponding
to the male's corpora spongiosum is found. Each of these (one on each side) is a(n)
bulb of the vestibule
On either side of the vestibule lie greater and lesser _____, which produce lubricating fluid.
On either side of the labia minora are the _____ (each one is a single _____), which are
large ridges filled with adipose tissue. In most positions (although it varies from person to
person), these meet and thus enclose the deeper structures.
labia majora; labium majus
The region of the perineum lying between the vagina and the anus is the _____, so-called
because it is often torn or cut during childbirth.
The area immediately anterior to the labia major (and continuous with them) is the _____,
named because it is essentially a small hill of adipose tissue resting on the pubis.
Taken together, the external female genitalia are often referred to as the _____.
During puberty, development of secondary sexual characteristics in the female is
stimulated by _____.
The function of the _____ is to provide milk for the newborn. Although present in both
genders, their development is dependent on the hormone _____, and so it does not
normally occur in males.
mammary glands or breasts;
In non-lactating women, most of the breast's mass is composed of _____. The _____,
which actually produces the milk, enlarges during lactation, however.
adipose tissue; mammary gland
Each mammary gland consists of 15-25 cone shaped _____; the point of each cone lies
within the nipple. Milk that is produced in each is secreted through a private _____ duct
which opens on the nipple's surface.
Each lobe within a mammary gland contains smaller _____; when a woman is lactating,
these contain glandular _____ which produce milk. (These structures are collapsed and
dormant in the absence of lactation.)
The mammary glands are surrounded by adipose tissue and held in place by a netlike set
of ligaments called the _____. (Over time, the weight of the breasts can cause these
ligaments to permanently stretch.)
The milk is drawn from the breast by suction as a baby eats. Each nipple is surrounded by
a circular band (pigmented in some individuals) called the _____, which contains _____
glands whose secretions protect the nipple during nursing.
The skin of the _____ is very sensitive to touch, more so when lactating. (In many women,
this evokes a pleasant sensation.) The smooth muscles under the skin respond by
contracting, causing the nipple to _____.
areolae; become erect