Flashcards in Female Reproductive System - HY Deck (48):
During week ..., the indifferent embryo begins phenotypic sexual differentiation.
By week ..., female or male characteristics of the external genitalia can be recognized.
By week ..., phenotypic differentiation is complete.
Phenotypic sexual differentiation is determined by the ...?
Sry gene located on the SHORT arm of the Y chromosome.
The Sry gene may result in ...?
Female phenotype, intersex phenotype, or male phenotype.
The Sry gene encodes for a protein called ...?
Testes-determining factor (TDF).
As the indifferent gonad develops into the TESTES, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells differentiate to produce ...?
Testo + MIF respectively.
In the presence of TDF, testo + MIF, the indifferent embryo will be directed to ...?
The male phenotype. (IN THE ABSENCE OF THEM --> FEMALE PHENOTYPE).
During weeks ...-..., the embryo remains in a sexually indifferent or undifferentiated stage.
Development of gonads - The ovary - The formation of gonadal ridge?
The intermediate mesoderm forms a longitudinal elevation along the dorsal body called the UROGENITAL RIDGE, which later forms the GONADAL RIDGE.
Primary sex cords develop from the ...?
Role of primary sex cords?
Develop from the gonadal ridge and incorporate primordial germ cells (XX genotype), which migrate into the gonad from the wall of the yolk sac.
Primary sex cords extend into the medulla and develop into the RETE OVARII, which eventually degenerates.
Secondary sex cords - Role?
Develop and incorporate primordial germ cells as a thin tunica albuginea forms.
Fate of secondary sex cords ...?
Break apart and form isolated cell clusters called PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES, which contain primary oocytes surrounded by a layer of simple squamous cells.
Relative descent of the ovaries?
The ovaries originally develop within the abdomen but later undergo a relative descent into the pelvis as a result of disproportionate GROWTH.
Relative descent of the ovaries - The gubernaculum:
May also play a role.
What is the gubernaculum?
A band of fibrous tissue along the posterior wall that extends from the medial pole of the ovary to the uterus at the junction of the uterine tubes, forming the OVARIAN LIGAMENT.
--> Gubernaculum then continues into the labia majora, forming the ROUND LIGAMENT OF THE UTERUS.
Development of genital ducts - Paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts:
The cranial portions of the paramesophrenic ducts develop into the uterine tubes.
The caudal portions of the paramesonephric ducts fuse in the midline to form the ...?
Uterovaginal primordium and thereby bring together two peritoneal folds called the BROAD LIGAMENT.
The uterovaginal primordium develops into the:
3. Superior 1/3 of the vagina.
The paramesonephric ducts project into the ...?
Dorsal wall of the cloaca and induce FORMATION of the sinovaginal bulbs.
The sinovaginal bulbs fuse to ...?
Form the solid VAGINAL PLATE, which canalizes and develops into the inferior 2/3 of the vagina.
Vestigial remnants of the paramesonephric duct may be found in the adult female and are called ...?
The hydatid of Morgagni.
Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts and tubules - In females?
They degenerate after formation of the metanephric kidney.
Vestigial remnants of the mesonephric ducts may be found in the adult female called ...?
Appendix vesiculosa and Gartner's duct.
Vestigial remnants of the mesonephric tubules, called the ...?
Epoophoron and the paraoophoron, may be found in the adult female.
Development of the Primordia of External Genitalia:
A proliferation of MESODERM around the cloacal membrane causes the overlying ECTODERM to rise up so that 3 structures are visible externally:
2. Urogenital folds.
3. Labioscrotal swellings.
The phallus forms the ...?
1. Glans clitoris.
2. Corpora cavernosa clitoris.
3. Vestibular bulbs.
The urogenital folds form the ...?
The labioscrotal swellings form the ...?
1. Labia majora.
2. Mons pubis.
The locations of various cysts within the female reproductive system is related to ...?
Vestigial remnants of the genital ducts.
Mention 5 important cysts of the female reproductive system:
1. Hydatid cyst of Morgagni.
2. Kobelt's cyst.
3. Cyst of epoophoron (type II).
4. Cyst of the paroophoron.
5. Gartner's duct cyst.
Hydatid cyst of Morgagni arises from ...?
The hydatid of Morgagni, which is a remnant of the paramesonephric duct.
Kobelt's cyst arises from the ...?
Appendix vesiculosa, which is a remnant of the mesonephric duct.
Cyst of the epoophoron (type II) arises from ...?
The epoophoron, which is a remnant of the mesonephric tubules.
Cyst of the paroophoron arises from the ...?
Paroophoron, which is a remnant of the mesonephric tubules.
Gartner's duct cyst arises from the ...?
Duct of Gartner, which is a remnant of the mesonephric duct.
Mulllerian hypoplasia or agenesis anomalies (class I) involving the paramesonephric ducts can result in ...?
4. Uterine tube.
5. Combined anomalies.
Examples of Mullerian hypoplasia and agenesis anomalies (class I):
1. Lower vagina agenesis.
2. Cervix agenesis.
3. Uterus and cervix hypoplasia.
4. Uterine tube agenesis.
The 5 classes of uterine anomalies:
Class I --> Mullerian hypoplasia or agenesis anomalies.
Class II --> Unicornuate uterus anomalies.
Class III --> Didelphys (double uterus) anomalies.
Class IV --> Bicornuate uterus anomalies.
Class V -->Septate uterus anomalies.
Class II uterine anomalies (unicornuate uterus anomalies) occur when?
One paramesonephric duct fails to develop or incompletely develops.
Examples of class II uterine anomalies - Unicornuate uterus anomalies:
1. Unicornuate uterus with a communicating rudimentary horn.
2. Unicornuate uterus with a NON communicating rudimentary horn.
3. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn containing NO UTERINE CAVITY.
4. Unicornuate uterus.
Class III uterine anomalies - Didelphys (double uterus) - Occurs when ...?
There is a complete lack of fusion of the paramesonephric ducts.
2 examples of class III uterine anomalies:
1. Didelphys with normal vagina.
2. Didelphys with complete vaginal SEPTUM.
Class IV uterine anomalies - Bicornuate uterus anomalies - Occur when ...?
There is partial fusion of the paramesonephric ducts.
Class IV bicornuate uterus anomalies - 2 examples:
1. Bicornuate uterus with complete division down to the internal os.
2. Bicornuate uterus with PARTIAL division.
Class V uterine anomalies - Septate uterus anomalies occur when ...?
The medial walls of the caudal portion of the paramesonephric ducts partially or completely fail to resorb.