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Flashcards in Fenger Deck (51):
1

Mosquito responsible for transmitting dengue viruses (flaviviruses) have been found as far north as

KY

2

Reoviridae. Double icosahedral. DS RNA. Replicates cytoplasm

Colorado tick fever

3

Togaviridae (alphaviruses). Icosahedral + envelope. +ssRNA. Replication cytoplasm

Encephalitis and fever/hemorrhagic

4

Flaviviridae. Icosahedral + envelope. +ssRNA. Replication cytoplasm

Encephalitis and fever/hemorrhagic

5

bunyaviridae. Helical + envelope. -ssRNA. Replication in cytoplasm

Fever/Hemorrhagic

6

_______ out of 300 arboviruses infect humans.
About 40, mostly ______, produce significant disease

100
togaviruses and flaviviruses

7

First arbovirus discovered

yellow fever virus

8

Togaviridae classified into ________ and __________

alphavirus and rubivirus (rubella)

9

Rubella is ________ an arbovirus
Alphaviruses __________ arboviruses

not
are

10

Alphaviruses - ________ capsid (w or w/o envelope)? Glycoprotein spikes?

icosahedral capsid
with
spikes

11

Togaviruses are/are not protease sensitive?

are

12

+ssRNA coding for 4-5 viral proteins. Multiplication within cytoplasm and get envelope via budding at cell membranes

alphaviruses

13

Togaviruses infections are all similar in

initial stages

14

First stage - introduced into blood via insect bite. Removed from blood and multiples in reticuloendothelial system (spleen and LNs). Viremia. Minor illness, chills, fever, vomiting, pain

1st stage symptoms of alphavirus (togavirus) infection

15

Second stage of alphavirus (togavirus) infection leads to

encephalitis

16

Togavirus (alphavirus) crosses BBB causing lesions in _______ parts of the brain. Causes ______ and ____________
Neck muscle rigidity, confusion, and convulsions

all
neuronophagia
encephalomalacia

17

Destruction of neurons and support structures

Encephalomalacia

18

_____ can cause eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and venezuelan equine encephalitis

alphaviruses

19

Severe human illness. High mortality.
Least prevalent of the equine encephalitis viruses.
Higher incidence in certain areas due to heavy spring rains and higher numbers of mosquitos

Eastern Equine Encephalitis

20

Less severe

Western EE

21

Mainly in horses, mild in humans

Venezuelan EE

22

Infects children at 50:1 and adults at 1000:1. Most asymptomatic

Western EE

23

Most fatal infections in elderly

Eastern EE

24

Structural and replication features similar to togaviruses

Flaviviruses

25

Protease resistant

Flaviviridae

26

Transmitted by mosquitos and ticks.
Include encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, and rash/fever viruses

Flaviviridae

27

First stage infection by _________
Infected insect bites human > virus in blood > replication in RE system > viremia > fever, chills, malaise, vomiting

Flaviviruses

28

Second stage of ________ virus invades various tissues

flavivirus

29

For flaviviruses that cause encephalitis (st. louis encephalitis, japanase, west nile encephalitis) crosses ________ and infects _______

BBB
CNS

30

Other flavivirus cause infections that involve __________

multiple systems

31

Flaviviruses can also infect the ___, endothelial cells of ______, and _______

skin
blood vessels
visceral organs

32

Dengue virus has ________ serotypes

4

33

Flaviviruses that cause infections involving multiple organ systems include

yellow fever virus
and
dengue virus

34

Yellow fever virus and dengue fever virus can cause ________

hemorrhagic fever illnesses that are severe

35

Mosquito transmitted. Clinical disease (2nd stage) includes very severe, saddle back (diphasic) fever. Necrosis of liver (jaundice) and kidney. Hemorrhages in stomach > hemoglobin of RBCs rx with acid to cause black colored product. Black vomit

Yellow fever virus

36

less severe form w/ maculopapular rash, pain in joints and muscles
Sometimes with ocular pain

dengue (breakbone) fever

37

Initial diasease can process to hemorrhagic fever and even further into _________

shock syndrome

38

Progression to ____ occurs most often if primary infection by serotypes X 1, 3, or 4 and second infection by type ___.

shock syndrome
2

39

Antibody-antigen rx activates monocytes with production of cytokines which causes an immunopathology

shock syndrome dengue fever

40

Hemoconcentration (more common in females) and thrombocytopenia occur

Shock syndrome dengue fever

41

_________ preferred over aspirin

acetaminophen

42

Hemoconcentration should be treated aggressively with

hydration therapy

43

___ can be transmitted to humans via insect vector, blood transfusion, and organ transplant
Viremia > crosses BBB to infect CNS

West nile virus

44

Birds and horses primary reservoirs.
Dogs and cats can also be infected

West nile virus

45

Immunization has been effective in

yellow fever

46

Yellow fever vaccine is

live, attenuated virus

47

Vaccine also available for

japanese encephalitis

48

No vaccine for

dengue fever

49

______ most common in US

SLE

50

On short list of arboviruses that could be weaponized

eastern EE

51

___________ is a hotspot for lacrosse encephalitis because of _________

Nicolas County, WV
mosquitos