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Flashcards in Filamentous Bacteria Deck (46):
1

True/False: Filamentous bacteria is a group of different generas of bacteria at some point in the growth they form a filamentous form

True

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2

What are the most important generas of filamentous bacteria?

Nocardia

Actinomyces

Dermatophilus 

3

All the filamentous bacteria are gram ______

positive 

4

True/False: Nocardia is anaerobic, gram positive and saprophytic

False: Nocardia is aerobic 

5

Nocardia are _____ acid- fast 

partially

*They can show up as both acid fast positive or negative

*some mycolic acids of nocardia are simple while other are more complex 

 

6

What kind of exudate does Nocardia produce?

suppurative and pyogranulomatous 

7

Which species of nocardia is the most common?

Nocardia asteroides 

8

True/False: Nocardia is mainly opportunistic 

True

immunosuppressed individuals are more at risk 

9

What immune response is needed agasint Nocardia?

Cell mediated 

10

What is the reservoir for nocardia and how is it transmitted?

soil and water 

transmitted via inhalation, trauma, and ingestion 

11

True/False: nocardia can cause mastitis 

True

 

12

Nocardia creates a suppurative process with variable ______ features 

granulomatous 

13

Lymph nodes are usually ______ in Nocardia infections 

enlarged 

*LYMPH NODES ARE CONSISTENTLY INVOVLED WITH NOCARDIA 

14

Nocardia has exudates with blood, pus and _____ like granules 

sulfur

*Sulfur granules are more common in actinomyces 

15

Nocardia is one of the causative agents for ______ farcy 

bovine 

16

True/False: Nocardia can cause pneumonia, abortion, and lymphadenitis 

True

17

What are the features of Bovine farcy?

Placenta covered with multiple foci

multiple lesions in the lung 

 

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18

Nocardia is most susceptible for _______horses, swine, dog and cats

immunosuppressed 

19

Nocardia causes important mortality events in what species?

dogs and cats 

50% case fatality 

20

Nocardia is the causative agent of what disease in the jaw?

Mandibular osteomyelitis (lumpy jaw)

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21

What is this a picture of?

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sulfur granules

*colonies of bacteria within the mandible 

22

Chronic osteomyelitis from Nocardia give a ______-like appearance to the mandible

honeycomb 

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23

True/False: Nocardia is morphologically indistinguishable from actinomyces

True 

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24

What agar can you grow Nocardia on?

Sabouraud's and blood agar 

*Nocardia looks similar to fungi when it grows 

25

Ture/False: Nocardia are falcultative aerobes 

False

Nocardia are OBLIGATE aerobes 

26

What is the most recommended drug for nocardosis treatment?

Trimethoprim- sulfonamide 

27

True/False: Actinomyces is found as part of the normal flora of the mouth, GI tract, and urogenital tract and cause endogenous infections

True 

 

28

One virulence factor of Actinomyces is ______ which cleaves sialic acid and open up receptors for the bacteria to bind to 

Sialidase 

29

Is Actinomyces acid fast positive?

NO

ACID FAST NEGATIVE- They do not contain mycolic acid 

30

What kind of reactions do Actinomyces evoke?

Pyogranulomatous 

31

What is the difference between the pathogenesis of Nocardiosis and Actinomyces?

Actinomyces has little tendency for vascular dissemination!

32

Actinomyces pathogenesis 

1. trauma opens the door for endogenous bacteria to colonize 

2. pyogranulomatose lesions evoking an intense response

3. osteomyelitis is initiated 

4. replacement with porous bone, dislodgement of teeth, inability to chew 

33

True/False: Only Nocardia causes lumpy jaw 

False

*Both Nocardia and Actinomyces cause lumpy jaw 

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34

True/False: It is more common to see lymph node involvement in Nocardia than Actinomyces

True 

35

What species of animal is more common to get lymph node invovlment by Actinomyces 

Horses 

*Common to see infections in cervical lymph nodes in horses with Acintomyces 

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36

How can dogs and cats transmit Actinomyces?

Bites

37

True/False: In Actinomyces, there could be antibodies but the main immune response that is protective is the cell mediated response 

True 

38

_______granules are VERY common with Actinomyces infections 

Sulfur 

*look like pepple lesions coming out of the wound 

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39

True/False: Actinomyces are obligate anaerobes

False

Facultative anaerobes 

40

Actinomyces requires _____ in the agar to grow

serum or blood 

41

What can be used as a treatment for Lumpy jaw?

Iodine 

42

True/False: Dermatophilus congolensis is mainly found in the tropical areas and can cause severe economic losses 

True 

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43

Dermatophilus is associated with warm weather, wet weather and _____

ticks! 

44

Dermatophilus causes a _____epidermitis in livestock 

exudative 

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45

Dermatophilus congolensis forms coccoid forming _____filaments 

branching 

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46

What is the best treatment for Dermatophilus?

if the animal is removed from the rain it will most likely recover 

reduce the tick population 

PREVENTION is key!