Flashcards in Final Deck (129):
What three elements make up most of the human body?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What is an ion?
charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons
What is a cation?
What is an anion?
What is an isotope?
Varieties in elements due to different numbers of neurons
What is a free radical?
Chemical particles with an odd number of electrons
What is an electrolyte?
Salts that ionize water
What are the three types of atomic bonds?
Covalent, ionic, hydrogen
How are covalent bonds formed?
How are Ionic bonds formed?
Attraction of a cation and an anion
How are hydrogen bonds formed?
Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen and a slightly negative oxygen
What are the seven properties of water?
Polarity, solvency, adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, thermal stability, chemical reactivity
What is polarity?
gives water properties to support its life
What is solvency?
the ability to dissolve other chemical
What is adhesion?
The tendency of a substance to cling to another
What is cohesion?
The tendency of a substance to cling to itself
What is surface tension?
Forms a surface film on water
What is thermal stability?
stabilizes internal temperature
What is chemical reactivity?
ionizes other chemicals
What is hydrophobic?
substances that do not like water
What is hydrophilic?
substances that do like water
What is amphiphilic?
has parts that are hydrophobic and hydrophilic
What are the three types of chemical reactions?
Decomposition, synthesis, and exchange reactions
Whats an organic compound?
compounds containing carbon
What are the four compounds in living systems?
carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What are the four protein structures?
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary
What is primary structure?
proteins amino acid sequence
What is secondary structure?
alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
What is tertiary structure?
further bending and folding
What is quaternary structure?
two or more polypeptide chains
What is conformation?
a unique 3d shape crucial to function
What is denaturation?
Detaching and destroys function
What is a conjugated protein?
contains a non-amino acid moiety
What are the 7 functions of protein in the body?
structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement and cell adhesion
What is an enzyme?
makes biochemical reactions occur rapidly
What is a substrate?
binds to enzyme
How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
they lower activation energy
What are cofactors?
What are coenzymes?
What is a metabolic pathway?
a chain of reactions
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
system of connected cristernae closed by a single membrane
What does the rough ER do?
synthesizes packaged proteins
What does the smooth ER do?
synthesis of membranes, steroids, and detoxifies lipids
What are ribosomes?
protein and RNA that translate mRNA to protein
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
synthesizes carbs and packages and ships
What are lysosomes?
packages of enzymes surrounded by a unit membrane
What is auto digestion?
Phagocytosis-- digesting worn out organelles
What is the function of the mitochondria?
What is the cristae of mitochondria?
inner membrane that folds to increase surface area
What is the matrix of the mitochondria?
space between cirstae
What do centrioles do?
What does the cytoskeleton do?
shapes the cell, supports, organizes, and moves things
What are the 3 components of the cytoskeleton?
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
What is diffusion?
movement from a high concentration to a low concentration
What is osmosis?
movement of water down a concentration gradient
What is hypotonic?
water flows into the cell
What is hypertonic?
water flows out of the cell
What does isotonic mean?
water flows in and out of the cell
What is carrier-mediated transport?
proteins carry things across membrane
What is facilitated diffusion?
carrier-mediated transport down a concentration gradient
What is hypertrophy?
tissue growth through cell enlargement
What is hyperplasia?
tissue growth through cell multiplication
What is atrophy?
shrinkage of tissue
What is necrosis?
premature death of a cell
What is apoptosis?
programmed cell death
What is regeneration?
replacement of dead cells
What is fibrosis?
replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue
What are the 5 strata of the epidermis?
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, and corneum
What are the 7 functions of the skeletal system?
support, protection, movement, blood formation, electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, and detoxification
Whats a prime mover?
produces force (forearm)
Whats a synergist?
assists prime mover (biceps)
Whats an antagonist?
opposes prime mover (triceps would antagonize biceps)
Whats a fixator?
prevents bone from moving (calf)
Whats isometric contraction?
No change in length
What is isotonic contraction?
length will change but not tension
What is the epiphyses?
enlarged end of a bone
What is the diaphysis?
the shaft of a bone
What is the medullary cavity?
What is nutrient formina?
hole that allows blood vessels to flow through
What is the periosteum?
allows vessels and nerves to pass through bone
What is the endosteum?
covers the insides of bones
What is appositional growth?
adding more matrix outside
What is interstitial growth?
adding more matrix inside
What is calcitrol?
increases blood calcium level
What is calcitonin?
decreases blood calcium level
What is the parathyroid hormone?
secreted by parathyroid gland
What are ionotropic effects?
membrane potential changes when ion gates are opened
What is metabotropic effects?
alter metabolism that opens ligand-gated ion channels
What are qualitative neural signals?
which neurons are firing
What are quantitative neural signals?
how many neurons and how often they are firing
Where does cerebrospinal fluid come from?
plexus in the brain
What is the blood-brain barrier?
found in capillaries throughout brain tissue
What is the blood CSF barrier?
found in choroid plexus
What are the 3 structures of the brain?
cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem
What are the three meninges?
dura, arachnoid, and pia
What are the three ventricles?
lateral, third, and fourth
What is the choroid plexus?
spongy mass of blood capillaries in ventricles
What is a dermatome?
area of the skin that sends sensory info to a specific spinal nerve
What are the seven functions of the hypothalamus?
hormone secretion, autonomic effects, thermoregulation, food and water, sleep rhythms, memory, and emotional behavior
What does the frontal lobe concern?
motor functions, motivations, planning, memory, emotion, agression
What does the parietal lobe concern?
sensory reception and taste
What does the occipital lobe concern?
What does the temporal lobe concern?
hearing, smell, memory, recognition
What does the insula concern?
understanding language and taste
What part of the brain controls sleep?
nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem
What part of the brain controls cognition?
areas of the cerebrum
What part of the brain controls memory?
What part of the brain controls emotion?
What are the two subdivisions of sensory division?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
What are the subdivisions of the motor division?
somatic and autonomic nervous
What are receptors?
any structure that detects a stimulus
What are the 4 properties of receptors?
convert energy, local potential, not all neurons, all release neurotransmitters
What are the 4 types of info sent by receptors?
modality, location, intensity, and duration
What are the three types of classification receptors?
stimulus modality, distribution of receptors, and origins of stimuli
What are 5 types of stimulus modality?
chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, mechanoreceptors, and photoreceptors
What are the three origins of stimuli?
interoceptors, proprioceptors, and exteroceptors
What are the three types of unecapsulated nerve endings?
free, tactile, and hair
What are the 6 types of encapsulated nerve endings?
tactile, krause end bulbs, lamellated, ruff ini, spindles, and golgi tendon
What are the two nociceptor types of pain?
fast and slow pain fibers
What is referred pain?
visceral pain that is sensed in superficial areas of the body
What are the sound qualities of hearing?
pitch and loudness
What are 5 the accessory structures of the eye?
eyebrows, eyelids, conjuctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and eye muscles
What are the three tunics of the eye?
fibrosa, vasculosa, and interna
What are rods responsible for?
What are cones used for?
What are the first order neurons of the visual pathway?
What are the second order neurons in the visual pathway?
What are endogenous opioids?
a painkiller-type effect