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Flashcards in Final Deck (129):
1

What three elements make up most of the human body?

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

2

What is an ion?

charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons

3

What is a cation?

positive charge

4

What is an anion?

negative charge

5

What is an isotope?

Varieties in elements due to different numbers of neurons

6

What is a free radical?

Chemical particles with an odd number of electrons

7

What is an electrolyte?

Salts that ionize water

8

What are the three types of atomic bonds?

Covalent, ionic, hydrogen

9

How are covalent bonds formed?

sharing electrons

10

How are Ionic bonds formed?

Attraction of a cation and an anion

11

How are hydrogen bonds formed?

Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen and a slightly negative oxygen

12

What are the seven properties of water?

Polarity, solvency, adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, thermal stability, chemical reactivity

13

What is polarity?

gives water properties to support its life

14

What is solvency?

the ability to dissolve other chemical

15

What is adhesion?

The tendency of a substance to cling to another

16

What is cohesion?

The tendency of a substance to cling to itself

17

What is surface tension?

Forms a surface film on water

18

What is thermal stability?

stabilizes internal temperature

19

What is chemical reactivity?

ionizes other chemicals

20

What is hydrophobic?

substances that do not like water

21

What is hydrophilic?

substances that do like water

22

What is amphiphilic?

has parts that are hydrophobic and hydrophilic

23

What are the three types of chemical reactions?

Decomposition, synthesis, and exchange reactions

24

Whats an organic compound?

compounds containing carbon

25

What are the four compounds in living systems?

carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

26

What are the four protein structures?

primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary

27

What is primary structure?

proteins amino acid sequence

28

What is secondary structure?

alpha helix or beta pleated sheets

29

What is tertiary structure?

further bending and folding

30

What is quaternary structure?

two or more polypeptide chains

31

What is conformation?

a unique 3d shape crucial to function

32

What is denaturation?

Detaching and destroys function

33

What is a conjugated protein?

contains a non-amino acid moiety

34

What are the 7 functions of protein in the body?

structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement and cell adhesion

35

What is an enzyme?

makes biochemical reactions occur rapidly

36

What is a substrate?

binds to enzyme

37

How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?

they lower activation energy

38

What are cofactors?

non-protein partners

39

What are coenzymes?

organic cofactors

40

What is a metabolic pathway?

a chain of reactions

41

What is the endoplasmic reticulum?

system of connected cristernae closed by a single membrane

42

What does the rough ER do?

synthesizes packaged proteins

43

What does the smooth ER do?

synthesis of membranes, steroids, and detoxifies lipids

44

What are ribosomes?

protein and RNA that translate mRNA to protein

45

What is the function of the golgi apparatus?

synthesizes carbs and packages and ships

46

What are lysosomes?

packages of enzymes surrounded by a unit membrane

47

What is auto digestion?

Phagocytosis-- digesting worn out organelles

48

What is the function of the mitochondria?

synthesize ATP

49

What is the cristae of mitochondria?

inner membrane that folds to increase surface area

50

What is the matrix of the mitochondria?

space between cirstae

51

What do centrioles do?

creates cilia

52

What does the cytoskeleton do?

shapes the cell, supports, organizes, and moves things

53

What are the 3 components of the cytoskeleton?

microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules

54

What is diffusion?

movement from a high concentration to a low concentration

55

What is osmosis?

movement of water down a concentration gradient

56

What is hypotonic?

water flows into the cell

57

What is hypertonic?

water flows out of the cell

58

What does isotonic mean?

water flows in and out of the cell

59

What is carrier-mediated transport?

proteins carry things across membrane

60

What is facilitated diffusion?

carrier-mediated transport down a concentration gradient

61

What is hypertrophy?

tissue growth through cell enlargement

62

What is hyperplasia?

tissue growth through cell multiplication

63

What is atrophy?

shrinkage of tissue

64

What is necrosis?

premature death of a cell

65

What is apoptosis?

programmed cell death

66

What is regeneration?

replacement of dead cells

67

What is fibrosis?

replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue

68

What are the 5 strata of the epidermis?

basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, and corneum

69

What are the 7 functions of the skeletal system?

support, protection, movement, blood formation, electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, and detoxification

70

Whats a prime mover?

produces force (forearm)

71

Whats a synergist?

assists prime mover (biceps)

72

Whats an antagonist?

opposes prime mover (triceps would antagonize biceps)

73

Whats a fixator?

prevents bone from moving (calf)

74

Whats isometric contraction?

No change in length

75

What is isotonic contraction?

length will change but not tension

76

What is the epiphyses?

enlarged end of a bone

77

What is the diaphysis?

the shaft of a bone

78

What is the medullary cavity?

marrow cavity

79

What is nutrient formina?

hole that allows blood vessels to flow through

80

What is the periosteum?

allows vessels and nerves to pass through bone

81

What is the endosteum?

covers the insides of bones

82

What is appositional growth?

adding more matrix outside

83

What is interstitial growth?

adding more matrix inside

84

What is calcitrol?

increases blood calcium level

85

What is calcitonin?

decreases blood calcium level

86

What is the parathyroid hormone?

secreted by parathyroid gland

87

What are ionotropic effects?

membrane potential changes when ion gates are opened

88

What is metabotropic effects?

alter metabolism that opens ligand-gated ion channels

89

What are qualitative neural signals?

which neurons are firing

90

What are quantitative neural signals?

how many neurons and how often they are firing

91

Where does cerebrospinal fluid come from?

plexus in the brain

92

What is the blood-brain barrier?

found in capillaries throughout brain tissue

93

What is the blood CSF barrier?

found in choroid plexus

94

What are the 3 structures of the brain?

cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

95

What are the three meninges?

dura, arachnoid, and pia

96

What are the three ventricles?

lateral, third, and fourth

97

What is the choroid plexus?

spongy mass of blood capillaries in ventricles

98

What is a dermatome?

area of the skin that sends sensory info to a specific spinal nerve

99

What are the seven functions of the hypothalamus?

hormone secretion, autonomic effects, thermoregulation, food and water, sleep rhythms, memory, and emotional behavior

100

What does the frontal lobe concern?

motor functions, motivations, planning, memory, emotion, agression

101

What does the parietal lobe concern?

sensory reception and taste

102

What does the occipital lobe concern?

all vision

103

What does the temporal lobe concern?

hearing, smell, memory, recognition

104

What does the insula concern?

understanding language and taste

105

What part of the brain controls sleep?

nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem

106

What part of the brain controls cognition?

areas of the cerebrum

107

What part of the brain controls memory?

hippocampus

108

What part of the brain controls emotion?

hypothalamus

109

What are the two subdivisions of sensory division?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

110

What are the subdivisions of the motor division?

somatic and autonomic nervous

111

What are receptors?

any structure that detects a stimulus

112

What are the 4 properties of receptors?

convert energy, local potential, not all neurons, all release neurotransmitters

113

What are the 4 types of info sent by receptors?

modality, location, intensity, and duration

114

What are the three types of classification receptors?

stimulus modality, distribution of receptors, and origins of stimuli

115

What are 5 types of stimulus modality?

chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, mechanoreceptors, and photoreceptors

116

What are the three origins of stimuli?

interoceptors, proprioceptors, and exteroceptors

117

What are the three types of unecapsulated nerve endings?

free, tactile, and hair

118

What are the 6 types of encapsulated nerve endings?

tactile, krause end bulbs, lamellated, ruff ini, spindles, and golgi tendon

119

What are the two nociceptor types of pain?

fast and slow pain fibers

120

What is referred pain?

visceral pain that is sensed in superficial areas of the body

121

What are the sound qualities of hearing?

pitch and loudness

122

What are 5 the accessory structures of the eye?

eyebrows, eyelids, conjuctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and eye muscles

123

What are the three tunics of the eye?

fibrosa, vasculosa, and interna

124

What are rods responsible for?

night vision

125

What are cones used for?

color vision

126

What are the first order neurons of the visual pathway?

bipolar cells

127

What are the second order neurons in the visual pathway?

ganglion cells

128

What are endogenous opioids?

a painkiller-type effect

129

What are the five primary taste sensation?

salty, sweet, sour, bitter and savory