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1

Results from either a poorly functioning thyroid gland or low secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland

Hypothyroidism

2

Hypothyroidism in adults

Myxedema

3

Symptoms of myxedema or hypothyroidism

General weakness
Muscle cramps
Dry skin

4

What is the treatment for hypothyroidism

Replacement therapy with T3 or T4
The standard treatment is levothyroxine (T4)

5

Disorder characterized by a dispondent mood, lack of energy, sleep disturbances, abnormal eating patterns, feelings of despair, guilt, and misery

Depression

6

The most common mental health disorder of elderly adults and also a common cause of disability

Depression

7

Types of depression

Major depressive disorder
Dysthymic disorder
Postpartum depression
Seasonal affective disorder
Psychotic depression

8

Treatment of depression in patients unresponsive to pharmacotherpay and with serious life-threatening mood disorders

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

9

Drugs for depression

Imipramine (Tofranil)
Sertraline (Zoloft)
Phenelzine (Nardil)

10

The more common form of the disorder, representing 90-95% of the people with diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

11

What is the primary physiological characteristic of type 2 diabetes when target cells become unresponsive to insulin due to a defect in insulin receptor functions, essentially the pancreas produces sufficient amounts of insulin but target cells do not recognize it. This can be reversed though with a healthy diet and regular exercise

Insulin resistance

12

Occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes
Acute condition with a mortality rate of 20-40%
Caused by an insufficient circulation of insulin
It has a gradual onset and it sometimes mistaken for a stroke

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS)7u

13

Insulin lispro (humalog) rate, color, onset, peak, and duration

Rapid acting
Clear
Onset: 5-15 minutes
Peak: 30-60 minutes
Duration: 3-4 hours

14

Insulin lispro (humalog) administration

Subcutaneous 5-10 minutes before meals

Can give with NPH (Humalin N), draw up lispro first and give immediately

15

Insulin Humalin R color, rate, onset, peak, and duration

Short acting
Clear
Onset: 30-60 minutes
Peak: 2-4 hours
Duration: 5-7 hours

16

Insulin Humalin R administration

Subcutaneous 30-60 minutes before a meal, IV

Can give with NPH (Humalin N), sterile water, or normal saline

DO NOT mix with Insulin glargine (lantus)

17

Insulin Humalin N (NPH) rate, color, onset, peak, and duration

Intermediate acting
Cloudy
Onset: 1-2 hours
Peak: 4-12 hours
Duration: 18-24 hours

18

Insulin Humalin N (NPH) administration

Subcutaneous 30 minutes before first meal of the day and 30 minutes before dinner if necessary

Can mix with aspart (novolog), lispro (humalog), and regular (humalin R)

DO NOT mix with Insulin glargine (lantus)

19

Insulin Glargine (lantus) rate, color, onset, peak, and duration

Long acting
Clear
Onset: 1.1 hours
Peak: 3-4 hours
Duration: 10-24 hours

20

Insulin Glargine (lantus) administration

Subcutaneous once a day, given at the same time each day
DO NOT mix with any other insulins

21

Disease in which the heart muscle cannot contract with sufficient force to meet the body's metabolic needs

Heart failure

22

Heart failure occurs with aging and can also be accelerated by what 5 things

Coronary artery disease (CAD): plaque build up in or narrowing of the coronary arteries

Mitral stenosis: valves gets hard and don’t close/seal very well so when pumping some goes backwards so there isn’t enough moving forward to meet the bodies needs

Myocardial infarction (MI): damage to a heart muscle so some of the blood supply has been cut off because you lose the ability to pump

Chronic hypertension (HTN): high blood pressure

Diabetes mellitus (DM)

23

6 drugs for heart failure

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitor)
--increase cardiac output by lowering blood pressure and decreasing blood volume (lisinopril)
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
--increase cardiac output by lowering blood pressure and decreasing blood volume (lisinopril)
Diuretics: rid the body of excess fluid
--increase cardiac output by reducing fluid volume and decreasing blood pressure (furosemide)
Cardiac glycosides
--increase cardiac output by increasing the force of myocardial contraction (digoxin)
Beta adrenergic blockers
--decrease cardiac workload by slowing the heart rate (b1) and decreasing blood pressure (a1)
Vasodilators
--decrease cardiac workload by dilating vessels and reducing preload

24

The amount of blood pumped by each ventricle each minute

Cardiac output

25

The amount of blood that fills the heart just before systole which is when the ventricle contracts

Preload

26

The pressure in the aorta that must be overcome in order for the heart to eject blood

Afterload (hypertension increases the afterload because the heart has to work harder)

27

A drug increases contractility of the heart
Makes the heart contract stronger, squeeze faster

Inotropic effect

28

A universal experience
Physical and emotional experience
Subjective
5th vital sign
Nurses must assess, treat, and evaluate

Pain

29

Medications used to relieve pain

Analgesics

30

2 basic categories of analgesics

Opioids
Nonopioids