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Flashcards in Final Deck (66):
1

parens patriae

state as parent &guardian
based on the concepts that children are not fully responsible for criminal conduct are capable of being rehabilitated

2

how was EARLY juvenile court different from adult court? (4)

no juries
terminology was less harsh
no adversarial relationship
confidentiality

3

juvenile court assumed authority over children when ... (3)

the welfare of the child was threatened
the child was a status offender
when the child was a delinquent

4

status offenders

a child who commits an act that if they were adults, the court would not have any authority over them

(runaways)

5

delinquents

juveniles who commit an act that is criminal for both adults &juveniles

6

general process (3)

dismiss the case
intake (transfer to adult court/remain in juvenile)
diver offender to rehabilitation programs

7

automatic transfer

juveniles who are accused of serious crimes are automatically "moved up" to adult court

8

prosecutorial discretion

prosecutors make the decision to file charges in adult court

9

juvenile adjudication hearings (4)

juvenile has similar rights as they would have in an adult criminal trial
proof beyond reasonable doubt
process is more informal as juveniles &their families often waive their right to an attorney
judge is required to determine whether the juvenile is delinquent

10

disposition process (3)

happens after being found delinquent
judges have great discretion in choosing the disposition
NOT a punishment... court develops plan to protect the youth &society

11

disposition includes (3)

confinement
probation
community treatment

12

confinement

juveniles are not sentenced to jail / prison

13

non secure confinement

allows subject freedom of movement

(foster care programs, group homes

14

secure confinement

comparable to adult prisons

(secure lockup facilities, training schools)

15

boot camps

military style group orientated rehabilitation program designed to alter the character &values of the juvenile offender

16

scared straight programs

involves taking juvenile delinquents on organized tours of prison facilities
ends w speeches given by inmates
does not work

17

what can be done to decrease juvenile delinquency? (2)

transfer to adult court
social control regulation

18

social control regulation (3)

curfews
parental responsibility statutes
community based programs

19

%firearms for murder

69%

20

%firearms for robberies

40%

21

%firearms for aggravated assaults

21.6%

22

who is most affected by gun violence? (3)

ages 15-24
teens/young adults most likely to be murdered w a gun
occurs in cities &urban communities

23

major federal gun control laws (4)

national firearms act of 1934
gun control act of 1968
brady handgun violence prevention act of 1993
assault weapons ban of 1994

24

concealed carry

when a person is carrying a weapon in close proximity to another person

25

no issue states

concealed carry permits are not issued for any private citizen &the concealed carry permits of other states are not recognized

26

may issue states

local authorities have some discretion &are not required by law ot issue the permits

27

shall issue states

have laws permitting concealed carry of firearms once certain criteria are met
law enforcement agencies have no discretion in issuing the permit

28

unrestricted states

allow private citizens to carry concealed weapons w/out a permit

29

concealed carry in illinois (3)

2013, last state to adopt a concealed carry law
SHALL ISSUE STATE
prohibited in a number of places

(gov buildings, hospitals, nursing homes, schools)

30

when was gun ban struck down in chicago by supreme court

2010
mcdonald vs chicago

31

how do people get their guns illegally? (2)

steal/borrow them
illicit gun market

32

what can be done to decrease gun violence? (4)

pulling levers
intelligence led policing
gun buyback programs
initiatives can focus on the supply &demand for gun

33

self defense

use of deadly force in defense of a person
a citizen is justified in the use of force which is intended to cause death / great bodily harm only if they reasonably believe that such force is necessary to prevent imminent death

34

justify self defense in house

if entry is violent &the citizen reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent as assault to them/another person then it is okay

35

gang

group of 3 or more persons who self identify themselves as an entity separate from the community
engage in criminal activity

(special clothing, vocabulary, hand signals, names)

36

types of gangs (3)

street
prison
outlaw motorcycle

37

street gangs

criminal organizations formed on the street &operating throughout the US

38

prison gangs

criminal organization that originated within the penal system &operate within correctional facilities throughout the US

39

outlaw motorcycle

organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises

40

%gangs are responsible for violent crime

48%

41

%gangs are responsible for murders in chicago

half

42

gang trends

peaked in mid 1990s
decreased until early 2000s
since early 2000s, increased again

43

general characteristics for gang members (3)

between 19 &20
avg about 180 members, specialty gangs avg 25 members
8%-15% youths part of gang some point in their lives
highest in large cities

44

% of female gang members

10%

45

myth/reality:
youths are pressured by peers &adults to join gangs

myth

46

myth/reality:
gangs overpower youths w initiation rituals

myth

47

myth/reality:
once youths join a gang, it is permanent

myth

48

%current users of any illegal drug

9.4%

49

%current users of alcohol

52.5%

50

%current users who smoke cigarettes

25.5%

51

%current users who smoke marijuana

7.5%

52

%current users who use cocaine

0.6%

53

%current users who use meth

0.2%

54

marijuana media date

1930s

55

crack media date

1980s

56

meth media date

1980s - 2000s

57

%got prescription drug from friend/relative for free

53%

58

%got prescription drug thru doctor

21%

59

%took prescription drug from friend/relative

15%

60

%got prescription drug from drug dealer/stranger

4%

61

where does heroin come from

mexico/south america

62

where does cocaine come from

colombia
peru
bolivia

63

where does marijuana come from

domestically grown in US
remainder is from mexico, colombia, &canada

64

%black people use crack vs powder

82% crack
27% powder

65

drug courts

focus on finding treatment options instead of simply sentencing individuals to jail/prison
cost effective

66

legalization debate (3)

legalization
decriminalization
prescription/maintenance models