Final Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (107):
1

Lose control of limbs, then trunk
Immune response after a viral infection
Reversible demyelinated

Guillain-Barre

2

Neuron at rest

Sodium and chlorine high outside the axolemma
Potassium and proteins high inside the axolemma

3

Resting potential of neuron

-70mV

4

How do we maintain unequal charge?

Channels

5

Sensory movement

Afferent divisions of PNS
10 million

6

Collect info, about internal body environment

Visceral sensory neurons

7

Collect info, about external environment and body position

Somatic sensory movement

8

Exterceptors

Monitor touch, pressure, temp. Sight, smell, hearing

9

Monitor joints and muscles

Proprioceptors

10

Monitor digestion, urinary, reproductive, pain, taste

Interceptors

11

Receptors deliver..

Info to the CNS for processin

12

Efferent division of PNS
Send directions from CNS to muscle and glands

Motor neurons

13

Smooth m., cardiac glands, fat

Visceral motor neurons

14

Skeletal m.

Somatic motor neurons

15

Most located in CNS-pyramidal and parkinje
20 billion in body

Interneurons

16

The middle men
A) distributes sensory info
B) coordinate motor signals- the more complex the action, more Interneurons we involved

Association cells

17

Most numerous in CNS
Directs growth of neurons
Composed of BBB

astrocytes

18

Make and circulate CSF

Ependymal cells

19

Oligodendrocytes

Myelinate the CNS making internodes
Gaps in myelin called "modes of Ranvier"

20

Police force of CNS
Garbage chewers

Microglia

21

Monitor environment of cell
Like astrocytes in CNS by function

Satellite cells

22

Myelinated axons in PNS
Act like Oligos in CNS
Important in Wallerjam degeneration

Schwann cell

23

Passive, always open, maintains resting potential

Leak channels

24

Active, restores resting potential, ejects 3 NA+ for every 2 K+ brought in

NA/K ATPASE pump

25

Active, open in response to stimulus. Changes the resting potential= depolarizers, repolarizes the cell

Gated channel

26

Occurs in most membranes
Weak- diminishes w/ distance
Depolarize, no threshold reached
Usually does not turn into action potential unless received lad to axon hillock

Graded

27

Occurs in exciteable in cells
Strong stimulus
Excited the entire length of the cell
Depolarize to threshold
Action potential form

Action potential

28

Single synapse, repeated stimuli

Temporal summation

29

Spatial summation

Multiple synapses, stimulatianous stimuli

30

If threshold is reached, action potential will be generated and passed along axon

All or none principle

31

Differences in the speed of AP

Propagation

32

Unmyelinated axons, ap runs in small steps as signals continue to be repeated

Continuous

33

Myelinated axons, a.p. Signal conducts only at the nodes of Ranvier, leaping over the internodes

Saltatory

34

Largest diameter, myelinated ap travels over 300 mph

Type A fibers

35

Medium diameter, myelinated ap travels at 40 mph

Type B fibers

36

Smallest diameters, Unmyelinated, ap travels at 2 mph

Type C fibers

37

So we have an ap now what?

Release of neurotransmitter from synaptic bulb
NTs have ethier excitatory or inhibitory effects in body.

38

1st discovered, excitatory at NMJ

Acetylcholine

39

Inhibitory in motor cortex
Prevents overstimulation of muscles
Induces hyper polarization
If receptors are destroyed then causes ridged/ stiff muscles

Dopamine

40

Receptors are destroyed then causes rigid / stuff muscles

Parkinson's disease

41

Excitatory in Limbic system
Causes depolarization and ap to occur

Dopamine

42

Blocks the re-uptake of dopamine- you get high

Cocaine

43

Excitatory, make you feel "happy"
Lack of it, can cause depression
SSRI such as Zoloft, Prozac help

Serotonin

44

Sits in receptors, rush of happy, then total crash

Ecstasy

45

Inhibitory
Reduces anxiety

GABA

46

Excitatory
Lowers threshold values
Increases amount of ACh released as reduces adenosine Ca NT which makes drowsiness

Caffeine

47

Excitatory bind to ACh receptors

Nicotine

48

Excitatory, released when you need to feel pain

Substance P

49

Released from knob with NTs
Can modify the action of NTS

Neuromodulators

50

Moraine/opium block substance P release, temp. Pain relief ex) morphine pill, OxyContin

Opioids

51

Hits in 30s
Myelin hardens
Common to optic nerve, brain cord
Episodic and progressive
More common in colder climates

Multiple Sclerosis

52

Outer gray layer of the brain

Cerebral cortex

53

Large white matter tract that allows communication of hemispheres

Corpus callosum

54

Elevated areas of cortex, increases surface area

Gyri

55

Shallow depression between gyri

Sulci

56

Deep grooves, the longitudinal seperatss L/R hemi

Fissure

57

Chunks of gray matter in each hemi, continued movements once started

Basal nuclei

58

Basal nuclei work unchecked, so voluntary movements are extremely difficult to start and continue and no treatment

Parkinson's disease

59

Coordination of involuntary movement, posture, balance

Cerebellum

60

Outer gray matter in the cerebellum

Cerebellar cortex

61

Tree of life, large whitest get tract

Arbor vitae

62

Vital functions, connection to other brain areas

Brain stem

63

Alertness

Mesencephalon aka midbrain

64

Body reflex to visual stimuli like a flash of bright light

Superior collicilus

65

Body reflex to loud noises

Inferior collicilus

66

Modified breathing, connects CBL to rest of brain

Pons

67

Digestion, blood pressure, heart rate, sets rate of breathing, also links brain with spinal cord

Medulla oblongata

68

Link between the cerebrum and the brainstem

Dicephalon

69

Post office of the brain

Thalamus

70

Body temp, hormone release, hunger+thirst

Hypothalamus

71

Pituitary gland

Hypophysis

72

Sleep/wake cycles, melatonin released when no light, so you get sleep

Pineal gland

73

Emotional system

Limbic system

74

Learning, memory, and emotion, looks like a sea horse
Memory storage and retrieval
Concerts short term mem to long

Hippocampus

75

Links emotion with memory, emotional learning , controls fight or flight response

Amygdala

76

Reticular activating system

RAS FILTERING SYSTEM

77

4 chambers in the brain

Ventricles

78

What are the laterals divided by

Septum pellueidum

79

How is a brain protected

Bones, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid

80

Outermost layer of menu he- 3 places where it folds on itself to cover gaps

Dura mater

81

Places where dura mater folds on itself

Falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentoriun cerebelli

82

Veins found in meninges

Subdural space

83

Intermediate layer, looks like spider webs

Arachnoid layer

84

Subarachnoid space

CSF found here

85

Innermost layer lies directly on the brain

Pis mater

86

Made by choroid plexus

Cerebrospinal fluid

87

Layer of ependymal cells lining the 3rd ventricle

Choroid plexus

88

Cerebrospinal fluid drained by this Into the veins

arachnoid granulations

89

CSF production norm or increased, but absorption does not occur or is slow

Hydrocephalus

90

What do adults and infants do to drain excess fluid

Shant

91

Layer of endothelial cells that surrounds brain capillaries

Blood brain barrier

92

BBB Alows

Polygon, glucose, alcohol, carbon dioxide, steroids, anesthesia

93

BBB DENIES

Most hormones
Most neurotransmitters
Most bacteria and viruses
Antibiotics
Penicillins and tetracyclines

94

Needs to regulate water/ nutrient content in blood

Hypothalamus

95

To detects poisons in blood

Vomit center

96

Blood supply cut off to brain- caused by a clot or aneurysm

Stroke

97

Strokes are mostly seen in

Wernicke's area
Broca's area

98

Incoming speech
Understanding of words
Sounding out new words

Wernickes area

99

If stroke occurs here

Cannot follow a simple command like "be quiet"
But could understand "be" and "quiet" separately

100

Outgoing speech
Speech production
Coordination muscles of the tongue/ lips/ throat

Broca's

101

Stoke damaged Broca's area

Can make sounds
Cannot form words

102

CSF filled sac

Cyst

103

Symptoms- seizures

Epilepsy

104

Brief stroke

Petit mal

105

23 min. Convulsions, unconscious

Grand mal

106

Uncontrolled neuron, activity, no other signals can get through

Pathology of a stoke

107

Memory loss, disorientation, anger, hallucinations

Alzheimer's disease