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Flashcards in Final Deck (21):
1

precocious puberty is characterized as

onset of breast development before age 7 in girls (6 for AA) and enlargement of testes before age 9 in boys
**More common in girls**

2

malformation/malfunction of the thyroid gland during fetal development

congenital hypothyroidism

3

congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed by:

low concentrations of T3 and T4

4

symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism:
(typical NCLEX question)

dull expression, puffy face, hoarse cry, tongue sticks out
(along with all s/s adults have)

5

energy and blood sugar regulating hormone

cortisol

6

salt and water-regulating hormone

aldosterone

7

SOB, swollen belly, and multiple metastasis sites are associated with:

non-hodgkins

8

s/s in assessment of pyloric stenosis

projectile vomiting 30-60 minutes after feeding
immediately hungry after vomiting
weight loss/can't gain weight
dehydration
constipation
olive-shaped mass on palpation
visible reverse peristalsis (left to right shift)

9

chronic constipation mgmt

diet (increase fiber)
increase fluids
restore stool pattern (scheduled time, go as often as they can/need to, make pleasant experience, same time of day)
bowel cleanser
maintenance therapy (miralax, milk of magnesia)
Avoid enemas when possible

10

Hirschsprung's disease

lack of ganglion cells (which allow for motility) in distal colon -- so inadequate motility in part of intestine causing bowel to dilate

11

how is Hirschsprung's disease diagnosed

rectal bx

12

physical findings of Hirschsprung's disease

vomiting, abd. obstruction, explosive bowel movements, constipation, diarrhea
older kids -- chronic constipation, ribbon or pellet-shaped and foul smelling BMs

13

with Hirschsprung's disease, important to look out for _____ which may indicated it has turned in to enterocolitis

abrupt onset of foul smelling diarrhea, abdominal distension, and fever

14

tx for Hirschsprung's disease

surgical resection

15

inflammation and infection of intestines

enterocolitis

16

appendicitis s/s

periumbilical pain initially (may also have RLQ rebound tenderness @ McBurneys point)
younger kid -- generalized pain
older kid -- localized pain
low-grade fever, nausea, anorexia
knees flexed -- position of comfort

17

with appendicitis, must make sure there is no abdominal distention with perforation as this indicates ____

peritonitis

18

Tx for appendicitis

antiobiotics first (if ruptured because of potential for petionitis)
surgical emergency

19

what is Meckel diverticulitum

painless rectal bleeding
--caused by vitelline duct in intestine that typically goes away after birth. With this, it doesn't go away and it can rupture and cause bleeding.

usually located within 2 feet of ileocecal valve.

20

s/s crohn's disease

acute, insidious onset
depends on area of intestine:
---limited to colon: similar to ulcerative colitis
---upper GI tract: vomiting, epigastric pain
---small bowel: cramping in RLQ

common s/s: abdominal pain, mod to severe diarrhea, bleeding, anorexia, weight loss, growth retardation (FTT), abdominal infections from holes created in intestine, joint pain, rashes
*inspect skin of skin tags or fissures

21

s/s intussusception

paroxysmal, episodic abdominal pain with vomiting every 5-30 minutes
screaming and drawing up legs with periods of calm, sleeping or lethargy between episodes
stool, possibly diarrhea in nature, with blood (looks like currant jelly)
high fever, dehydration, abdominal distension
*sausage shaped mass in URQ (Dance's sign)