Flashcards in Final Deck (117):
Example of polysaccharide
Who gave cells their named ?
First person to looks at cells
Inside a cell
Eukaryotic cell is divided in
The lipids in the cell membrane
Head - polar
Tail - non polar
Movement of particles from a region in which they are higher concentration to lower concentration
Diffusion is considered ..
Passive process bc it requires no energy
The diffusion of water through a membrane
Higher concentration of solute
Movement of certain molecules down a convent ion gradient , passing through the membrane
Process of taking material into the cell by folding the cell membrane inward and forming pockets
Taking in liquids
What type of cells contains chloroplasts ?
Plant cells & algae
The food making process is
What are the raw materials for photosynthesis?
Where are most photosynthesis cells in plants found ?
The individual sacs are
Thylakoids and arranged in granum
Why are mitochondria called the power house
They burn the chemical bonds of glucose to release energy to do work in cell
What cell process occurs in the mitochondria
Aerobic cellular respiration
Why do cells have more mitochondria
Depends on how active the cell is
What simple sugar is broken down in mitochondria
Why is cellular respiration an aerobic process ?
What energy is released when the chemical binds of glucose are broken
Folds are called
Able to store and transport chemical energy within cells
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
Organisms without a cell nucleus
Are organisms who cells are organized into complex structures and a cytoskeleton
Material living cell
Produce proteins by following instructions from DNA
Sorta and packages proteins and materials from endoplasmic retriculm
Responsible for assembly outside cell
Regulates & releases ions and toxins
Plant holds materials & waste
Cells genetic material in DNA
Controls movement of materials in/out of nucleus
Regulates cell cycle
Breaks down large food molecules into small ones
Allowed transport of molecules across nuclear envelope
Genetic recombination & importance
The production of offspring w comb of traits that different from parents
They only inherit one half of their traits from each parent
DNA is a polymer made of repeating subunits called
Unit of heredity that contains genetic info
Where are chromosome located
DNA is found in
Two scientists that established the structure of DNA
Replication is called semi conservative bc
Half of the original strand is saved
What are the sides of DNA ladder of ?
Sugars and phosphate
Three parts that make up single nucleotide
What bases that make up rungs of DNA
What sugar is found in DNA
What sugar is found in RNA
Why is RNA a messenger
Small enough to message what proteins are made & whT activities are performed
Proteins are made where in cell
Copying DNA is
Shape of DNA
Double helix twisted ladder
Importance of nucleotide sequence
Forms the unique genetic info of an organism
Which cell is unicellular
Which cell has a nucleus & is multicellular ?
DNA to RNA
What do ONLY animal cells have
What do ONLY plant cells have
DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme polymerase
Ribosomes in cytoplasm creates proteins
Rewrite RNA & combine w proteins
Structure of cell membrane
Ions and organic molecules and controls the movement
Cell membrane function
Protect the cell from its surroundings
Why is the cell membrane considered semipermeable ?
Cells can move through them
Why is the cell membrane also called phospholipid bilayer ?
Composed of two layers of fat cells in Two sheets
Energy demanding transfer of a substance across a cell membrane against IT concentration gradient
What two differences between active transport and passive transport ?
1. Passive transport doesn't require energy
- concentration: high to low
2. Active transport does require energy
- concentration: low to high
Which type of transport would involve a sprint potassium pump moving materials against the concentration gradient ?
Active transport - energy pumps molecules & ions across membrane
Where in cells does photosynthesis occur ?
How does the cell store and release energy ?
ADP uses cellular respiration to bond w a third phosphate group , becoming a molecule of ATP
- stores in ATP
Describe how oxygen if formed as a product from the photosynthesis reaction
Plants take in CO and water then converts them to sugar and oxygen
Explain how a plant increase its mass when inside a sealed container
Bc the seed is still receiving nutrients/water from the soil
Anaerobic process where energy can be release from glucose without oxygen
Hi does cruller respiration differ from fermentation ?
Fermentation does not require oxygen like cellular respiration does
Which part of the process occurs in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration ?
Producing cellular energy involving oxygen
Occurs when oxygen is absent
Form of a gene . Arise by mutation and found in the same chromosome
Genetic makeup of an organism ( set of traits )
Organisms traits & appearance
Shows even if indivisible has one copy of the allele
Only shows if individual has two copies of the allele
Having two of the same allele
Having one of each alleles
Neither allele is dominant or recessive
A form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele is not completely expressed over its paired allele
The breakdown of glucose molecule into two three carbon molecules
Why does transcription occur ?
To make a protein
Genetic material smallest to largest
What's the purpose of respiration ?
To turn glucose into ATP to power the cell
Three stages of aerobic respiration
Electron transport chain
What effect would this have on the rate of the reaction ,
This causes the rate to increase ; by lowering activation energy
Three parts of the cell theory
All living things are made up of cells
Cells are smallest units
All cells come from preexisting cells
Provide body w energy
Ex : glucose , candy , fruit
Long term energy storage
Ex : oils , meat , nuts
Build & repair muscles & tissues
Ex: meat , fish , milk , eggs
Stores & carries genetic info
Ex: vitamins , minerals
To put tg while losing water
The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction w water
What type of macromolecules are enzymes ?
What effect do enzymes have on the rate of chemical reactions ?
They speed up the chemical reactions
How can you increase the activity of an enzyme ?
Substrate concentration - more substrate molecules will be colliding w enzyme molecules
Carries genetic instructions used in the growth , development , functioning , reproduction in organisms