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Flashcards in Final Deck (117):
1

Example of polysaccharide

Complex carb

2

Who gave cells their named ?

Hooke

3

First person to looks at cells

Robert Hooke

4

Inside a cell

Nucleic acid
DNA
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes

5

Eukaryotic cell is divided in

Nucleus
Cytoplasm

6

Plants
Animals
Fungi

E cells

7

Phospholipids

The lipids in the cell membrane
Head - polar

Tail - non polar

8

Diffusion

Movement of particles from a region in which they are higher concentration to lower concentration

9

Diffusion is considered ..

Passive process bc it requires no energy

10

Osmosis

The diffusion of water through a membrane

11

Hypertonic

Higher concentration of solute

12

Hypotonic

Lower concentration

13

Facilitated diffusion

Movement of certain molecules down a convent ion gradient , passing through the membrane

14

Endocytosis

Process of taking material into the cell by folding the cell membrane inward and forming pockets

15

Phagocytosis

Solid materials

16

Pinocytosis

Taking in liquids

17

What type of cells contains chloroplasts ?

Plant cells & algae

18

The food making process is

Photosynthesis

19

What are the raw materials for photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide
Water

20

Where are most photosynthesis cells in plants found ?

Leaves

21

The individual sacs are

Thylakoids and arranged in granum

22

Why are mitochondria called the power house

They burn the chemical bonds of glucose to release energy to do work in cell

23

What cell process occurs in the mitochondria

Aerobic cellular respiration

24

Why do cells have more mitochondria

Depends on how active the cell is

25

What simple sugar is broken down in mitochondria

Glucose

26

Why is cellular respiration an aerobic process ?

Requires energy

27

What energy is released when the chemical binds of glucose are broken

Energy ATP

28

Folds are called

Cristae

29

ATP IS

Able to store and transport chemical energy within cells

30

Cell membrane

Both
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell

31

Cell wall

Plant
Supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells

32

Prokaryotic cell

Organisms without a cell nucleus

33

Eukaryotes

Are organisms who cells are organized into complex structures and a cytoskeleton

34

Vacuole

Both
Stores materials

35

Cytoplasm

Material living cell
Both

36

Ribosome

Both
Produce proteins by following instructions from DNA

37

Golgi

Both
Sorta and packages proteins and materials from endoplasmic retriculm

38

Rough ER

Both
Responsible for assembly outside cell

39

Smooth Er

Both
Regulates & releases ions and toxins

40

Central vacuole

Plant holds materials & waste

41

Nucleus

Both
Cells genetic material in DNA

42

Nuclear membrane

Both
Controls movement of materials in/out of nucleus

43

Centrosome

Animal
Organization
Regulates cell cycle

44

Lysosomes

Animal
Breaks down large food molecules into small ones

45

Micortubles

Transportation function

46

Nuclear pores

Plant
Allowed transport of molecules across nuclear envelope

47

Diploid

Parent cell

48

Haploid

Daughter cell

49

Genetic recombination & importance

The production of offspring w comb of traits that different from parents
They only inherit one half of their traits from each parent

50

DNA is a polymer made of repeating subunits called

Nucleotides

51

Gene

Unit of heredity that contains genetic info

52

Where are chromosome located

Nucleus

53

DNA is found in

Chromosomes

54

Two scientists that established the structure of DNA

James Watson
Francis crick

55

Replication is called semi conservative bc

Half of the original strand is saved

56

What are the sides of DNA ladder of ?

Sugars and phosphate

57

Three parts that make up single nucleotide

Nitrogenous base
Sugar
Phosphate

58

What bases that make up rungs of DNA

A
G
T
C

59

What sugar is found in DNA

Deoxyribose

60

What sugar is found in RNA

Ribose

61

Why is RNA a messenger

Small enough to message what proteins are made & whT activities are performed

62

Proteins are made where in cell

Ribosomes

63

Copying DNA is

Replication

64

Shape of DNA

Double helix twisted ladder

65

Importance of nucleotide sequence

Forms the unique genetic info of an organism

66

Which cell is unicellular

Prokaryotes

67

Which cell has a nucleus & is multicellular ?

Eukaryotes

68

Transcription process

DNA to RNA

69

What do ONLY animal cells have

Centrosome
Lysosomes

70

What do ONLY plant cells have

Cell wall
Central vacuole
Chloroplast
Nuclear pores

71

Transcription

DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme polymerase

IN NUCLEUS

72

Translation

Ribosomes in cytoplasm creates proteins

IN CYTOPLASM

73

Nucleolus

Rewrite RNA & combine w proteins

74

Structure of cell membrane

Ions and organic molecules and controls the movement

75

Cell membrane function

Protect the cell from its surroundings

76

Why is the cell membrane considered semipermeable ?

Cells can move through them

77

Why is the cell membrane also called phospholipid bilayer ?

Composed of two layers of fat cells in Two sheets

78

Active transport

Energy demanding transfer of a substance across a cell membrane against IT concentration gradient

79

What two differences between active transport and passive transport ?

1. Passive transport doesn't require energy
- concentration: high to low

2. Active transport does require energy
- concentration: low to high

80

Which type of transport would involve a sprint potassium pump moving materials against the concentration gradient ?

Active transport - energy pumps molecules & ions across membrane

81

Where in cells does photosynthesis occur ?

Chloroplast

82

How does the cell store and release energy ?

ADP uses cellular respiration to bond w a third phosphate group , becoming a molecule of ATP
- stores in ATP

83

Describe how oxygen if formed as a product from the photosynthesis reaction

Plants take in CO and water then converts them to sugar and oxygen

84

Explain how a plant increase its mass when inside a sealed container

Bc the seed is still receiving nutrients/water from the soil

85

Fermentation

Anaerobic process where energy can be release from glucose without oxygen

86

Hi does cruller respiration differ from fermentation ?

Fermentation does not require oxygen like cellular respiration does

87

Which part of the process occurs in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration ?

Glycolysis

88

Aerobic respiration

Producing cellular energy involving oxygen

89

Anaerobic respiration

Occurs when oxygen is absent

90

Allele

Form of a gene . Arise by mutation and found in the same chromosome

91

Genotype

Genetic makeup of an organism ( set of traits )

92

Phenotype

Organisms traits & appearance

93

Dominant allele

Shows even if indivisible has one copy of the allele

94

Recessive allele

Only shows if individual has two copies of the allele

95

Homozygous

Having two of the same allele

96

Heterozygous

Having one of each alleles

97

Codominance

Neither allele is dominant or recessive

98

Incomplete dominance

A form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele is not completely expressed over its paired allele

99

Glycolysis

The breakdown of glucose molecule into two three carbon molecules

100

Why does transcription occur ?

To make a protein

101

Genetic material smallest to largest

Nucleic acid
DNA
Gene
Chromosomes

102

What's the purpose of respiration ?

To turn glucose into ATP to power the cell

103

Three stages of aerobic respiration

Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
Electron transport chain

104

Enzymes lowers..

Activation energy

105

What effect would this have on the rate of the reaction ,

This causes the rate to increase ; by lowering activation energy

106

Three parts of the cell theory

All living things are made up of cells
Cells are smallest units
All cells come from preexisting cells

107

Carbs

Simple sugars
Provide body w energy
Ex : glucose , candy , fruit

107

Lipids

Fatty acids
Long term energy storage
Ex : oils , meat , nuts

107

Proteins

Amino acids
Build & repair muscles & tissues
Ex: meat , fish , milk , eggs

107

Nucleic acids

Nucleotides
Stores & carries genetic info
Ex: vitamins , minerals

107

Dehydration synthesis

To put tg while losing water

107

Hydrolysis

The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction w water

107

What type of macromolecules are enzymes ?

Proteins

107

What effect do enzymes have on the rate of chemical reactions ?

They speed up the chemical reactions

107

How can you increase the activity of an enzyme ?

Substrate concentration - more substrate molecules will be colliding w enzyme molecules

107

DNA

Carries genetic instructions used in the growth , development , functioning , reproduction in organisms

107

RNA

A messenger that carries instructions for DNA to control proteins