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Flashcards in Final Deck (48):
1

occlusions

blockages of blood vessels

2

stroke

lack of blood flow to the brain caused by a clop or rupture of a blood vessel

3

ischemic stroke

swelling of blood vessels in the brain

4

hemorrhagic stroke

bleeding around/into the brain

5

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

resolution of acute neurological/stroke deficits within 24 hours

6

stroke symptoms (5)

1. numbness/weakness of face, arms or legs, especially on one side of the body
2. severe headache with no known cause
3. trouble seeing in one or both eyes
4. confusion, trouble speaking or understanding
5. trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination

7

factors associated with increased stroke risk (5)

advanced age, diabetes mellitus, symptoms more than 10 minutes, weakness, impaired speech

8

Broca's area

'spoken language'
classical production of language
includes shape the mouth makes

9

Wernicke's area

'language reception'

10

arcuate fasciculus

ribbon of tissue that joins the Broca's area with the Wernicke's area

11

Broca's aphasia

damage to motor images
language comprehension skills are relatively preserved
typical damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex

12

Wernicke's aphasia

fluent nonsense
neologisms
even simple sentences are not well understood

13

combination aphasia

Broca's + Wernicke's aphasia

14

progressive aphasia

slowed speech
naming errors
slow vs. acute progression
often secondary to Alzheimer's or frontotemporal dementia

15

critical period hypothesis

there is an ideal 'window' of time in a person's life to acquire language in a linguistically rick environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful

16

people who have more bilateral language representation

women
gay men
left-handed people

17

parkinsonism

differing combos of slowness of movement (bradykinesia), increased rigidity, tremor and loss of postural reflexes

18

dopamine

inhibitory neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia

19

acetylcholine

excitatory neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia

20

bradykinesia

slowed ability to start and continue movements and impaired ability to adjust the body's position

21

akinesia

loss of movement
expressionless face

22

Lewy bodies

very tiny abnormal protein structures

23

multiple systems atrophy (MSA)

an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diverse clinical symptoms

24

MSA-Parkinsonian

progressive bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, jerky postural tremor and tremor at rest

25

MSA-Cerebellar

gait and limb ataxia, scanning speech, and cerebellar oculomotor disturbances

26

alpha waves

idling frequency
speed into which you go into 'neural'

27

stage 1 sleep

often a replay of the day's experiences
feels like a conscious examination

28

stage 2-4 sleep

mostly NREM stages
not active thoughts

29

delta waves

slowest frequency sleep waves

30

sleep paralysis

when the brainstem blocks the motor cortex's messages and the muscles don't most
brain is active but the body is immobile

31

REM sleep characteristics

dreaming, flaccid limb paralysis, rapid eye movements, increased autonomic activities

32

sleep latency

the interval to fall asleep after retiring
~10-20 minutes

33

REM latency

the interval from falling asleep to the first REM sleep
~90-120 minutes

34

dyssomnias

a broad classification of sleeping disorders that make it difficult to get to sleep or stay asleep

35

intrinsic sleep disorders

type of dyssomnia
ex. hypersomnia, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, RLS, sleep apnea, etc.
idiopathic causes

36

extrinsic sleep disorders

type of dyssomnia
ex. alcohol dependent sleep disorder, food allergy insomnia, inadequate sleep routines, etc.
modifiable behavior

37

circadian rhythm sleep disorders

type of dyssomnia
ex. advanced sleep phase syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome, jet lag, shift work sleep disorder, etc.
can hack with early morning light

38

narcolepsy

a neurological condition most characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness

39

periodic limb movement disorder/nocturnal myoclonus

sleep disorder where the patient moves involuntarily during sleep

40

parasomnias

a broad classification of various uncommon disruptive sleep-related disorders
intense, infrequent physical acts that occur during sleep
includes sleepwalking, sleep talking, sleep terrors, nightmares, and teeth grinding

41

fatal familial insomnia

inherited tendency to develop a progressively severe insomnia that is refractory to medicine
accompanied by neuropsychological problems like inattentiveness, confusion and amnesia

42

polysomnography

a comprehensive recording of the biophysical changes that occur during the sleep
simultaneous recordings of EEG, EOG, EMG, EKG, vital signs and breathing

43

anti-senescence

loss of function due to age

44

allotropic expression

insert many genes

45

xenohydrolases

insert foreign genes

46

WILT

target genes in vitra and in vivo

47

CRISPR

unlocked control over genome

48

Kurzweil's 6 epochs

1: physics and chemistry
2: biology
3: brains
4: technology
5: merger of technology and software designs
6: the universe wakes up