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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (47):
1

The five essential issues of the Arab-Israeli Conflict:

1. 1948 Palestinian refugees
2. 1967 Palestinian refugees
3. The Final Status of Jerusalem
4. Israeli Settlers
5. Occupied Territories

2

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
586 BC:

First Destruction of the Temple of Solomon by the Babylonians

3

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
70 AD:

Second destruction of the same Temple of Solomon by the Romans

4

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
Night Journey of Muhammad to Jerusalem (to the Farthest Mosque, also known in Arabic as Al-Aqsa Mosque)

This makes the same area the third holiest place for the Muslims. Muslims start pointing to Jerusalem for their prayers (later on, they change the direction to Maccah after idols are destroyed).

5

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
The Dome of Rock was built during:

the Umayyad Caliphate

6

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
Crusaders expeditions (European Christians’ “Holy Wars”):

11th to 13th Century to free Jerusalem from the Muslims (also known to the Europeans as the Infidels)

7

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
15th through 19th century:

Ottoman Caliphate: Muslims and Jews living peacefully after the Inquisition in Europe that forced both religions out of Spain. Jews find safe haven in Islamic land and also escape anti-Jewish sentiments and discrimination in Europe.

8

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict... End of 19th Century:

The World Zionist Congress in Europe proposes a Jewish Homeland due to European persecution of Jews.
Three areas are suggested:
Jews could either live in Argentina, Uganda (East African Scheme), Palestine (the last one was the final vote)

9

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
Balfour Declaration in 1917:

Secret document by the British Foreign minister to the Zionists to support the establishment of a Jewish Homeland in Palestine, yet respecting the indigenous inhabitants (Arab Muslims and Arab Christians). This historic pledge truly angers Palestinians.

10

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
1938 White Papers:

British issued: limit Jewish Migration from Europe to the Holy Land & Put Jews in Palestine under Arab Control

11

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
King David Hotel:

Headquarter of British administration is blown up by Zionist terrorist group. Palestinian / Jewish problem is turned in to U.N.

12

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
Deir Yassin massacre (and other massacres):

Its impact and creation of first refugee problem (1948)

13

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
Creation of the State of Israel:

1948

14

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
1967 War:

(also known as the 6-day War, or the June War) Israel had a complete victory. The 1967 War created the second waive of refugees. Israel also occupied the West Bank and the Gaza strip, including important cities like the Arab portion of Jerusalem along with other Biblical cities such as Bethlehem, Hebron.

15

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
1982 War:

Invasion of Lebanon. Israel reaches Beirut, Sharon is indirectly responsible for massacres of innocent civilians in the Sabra and Shatila Palestinian refugee camps.

16

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
Intifadah I & Intifadah II:

Palestinian Uprisings

17

Historical event that impacted the Palestinian/Israeli conflict...
2006:

-Hamas democratically wins elections in Palestine. The U.S. doesn’t recognize new democratically elected government.
-6th war between Arabs and Israel in Lebanon

18

Definition of a Muslim:

a person who submits to the Will of God

19

Payment of Zakat:

-One of the 5 pillars of Islam
-Usually 2.5% of a person's accumulated wealth over a year

20

Mufti:

a specialist in Islamic Law who is competent to deliver a fatwa or legal interpretation/opinion

21

Which Muslim country hosts the headquarters of following three important Islamic organizations (The Muslim World League, the Islamic Development Bank, the Organization of Islamic Conference?

Saudi Arabia

22

True or False?
Khomeini became the leader of Iran in a revolution in 1979. He came to power after overthrowing the Shah (King) of Iran who was a staunch supporter of the United States. It was during Khomeini’s time that the famous American hostages Crisis occurred.

True

23

Which country supported the overthrow of a democratically elected Iranian president in 1953 and replaced him with a monarchy (rule under a King)?

U.S.

24

What were Osama Bin Laden’s 4 demands after 9/11 when he addressed the U.S. population?

1. Withdrawal of American troops from Islamic Holy Lands
2. Stopping US-led economic sanctions on Iraq
3. Urging the US to stop supporting dictator regimes in the Middle East
4. Urging the US to have a fair and equitable policy towards Palestinians and Israelis

25

Which Western country originally banned the Muslim girls from wearing a headscarf (hijab) in the school?

France

26

True or False?
Both Sunni and Shia Muslims have great respect to the grandson of the prophet Muhammad, Hussayn, who was killed in Karbala in 680 AD. However, it is usually the Shiite Muslims who commemorate his death rather than the Sunni Muslims.

True

27

Which organization was established prior to ISNA and is considered to be the widest Islamic organization in the U.S. in terms of membership?

The Muslim Students Association (MSA) (in high schools and colleges)

28

According to our textbook, which one of the following groups is a very popular Islamic Party in Egypt?

The Muslim Brotherhood

29

True or False?
Islamic Law prohibits non-Muslims living in a Muslim state to hold any public office positions.

False

30

True or False?
Islamic Law prohibits women to hold any public office positions.

False

31

When a Muslim person passes away...

His/her family members must pay-off all of the deceased person’s debts prior to distributing inheritance.

32

True or False?
The Muslim dead body must be put in a coffin and tightly sealed from the elements of nature in order to be properly buried. This is the way Muslims are buried all over the world.

False.
Muslims don’t usually bury their deceased people in coffins unless it is required by local laws.

33

What is Sufism?

It refers to Islamic Mysticism. It is NOT an Islamic legal school of thought.

34

Define Allah:

Arabic word for God. Same word used by Arab Christians or Arab Jews.

35

What are the names of the two main groups of Muslims around the world? What’s their percentage of the total Muslim population?

Sunni Muslims (85%)
Shiite Muslims (15%)

36

The longest verse in the Qur’an deals with...

Contracts, emphasizing the importance of having terms in writing, avoiding problems and having consent and witnesses.

37

What does the Trusteeship of Umar to the Patriarch Sophronius consist of?

Protection of Christian properties

38

What does the word Jihad mean?

Struggle NOT holy war

39

What is the Farewell Speech of Muhammad?

His final speech. He spoke about human equalities, respect for women, economic justice and duties of Muslims.

40

Remember the sources and authorities of Islamic Jurisprudence (or Islamic Law) by order of importance:

1-Quran
2-Hadith
3-Consensus of Scholars
4-Ijtihad (or Analytical Reasoning)

41

Remember that there are 5 popular schools of thought in Islam.
They are called:

Hanbali, Shafii, Hanafi, Maliki (These 4 are Sunni schools); Jaafari (This is the main school of thought for the Shiite).

42

Actions in Islam are categorized under 5 classifications:

1-Prohibitted (HARAM) such as alcohol or pork or gambling.
2-Discouraged (such as smoking or neglecting one’s health).
3-Permissible (HALAL) most of people’s behavior and life choice.
4-Encouraged (visiting the sick people, getting married, etc.).
5-Required/Obligatory (prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, giving zakat, unless there are certain conditions when a person doesn’t need to perform them).

43

Which one of the following is NOT among the most important points related to the Palestinian/Israeli conflict?

The Balfour Declaration (this is a historic aspect of the conflict, not an issue)

44

What’s the population of Muslims in North America?

8-9 million

45

What’s the population of Muslims in Europe:

About 20 million Muslims in Europe

46

Which organization is considered to be an umbrella organization of many Islamic organizations in the United States?

The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA)

47

Define the Qur’an:

-It is the Scripture that Muslims believe is God’s words, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, in the Arabic language, over a period of about 23 years.
-When it is translated in other languages, it is considered to be an interpretation of the meaning of the Qur’an but not the actual Qur’an.
-One of the 4 original copies of the Qur’an still exists today in Turkey.