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Flashcards in Final Deck (43):
1

What is the common word for secondary xylem?

Wood

2

Width of tree rings are affected by...

Increasing global temperature

3

What water pathway goes through the cell wall only and is "easy"?

Apoplastic

4

What water pathway goes through the cytosol only and is "easy"?

Symplastic

5

What water pathway goes through only cytosol and cell walls, but has difficulty going through lipid bilayers?

Transmembrane

6

Both ___ and ___ concentration affect water potential

Pressure, Solute

7

Why do stomata close at night?

To preserve water

8

Cells have to be alive to perform water bulk flow. True or false?

False

9

In the fall, the chlorophyll ___, which makes the variety of colour in leaves

Degrades

10

In prokaryotes, photosynthesis is performed where?

Thylakoid membranes

11

What are the 3 basic steps of photosynthesis?

Photochemistry, Electron transfer, Incorporation of CO2 into carbs

12

Name 2 characteristics of plants grown in a shaded environment.

Tall
No chloroplasts

13

An organism with a varying body temperature is called a ____.

Poikilotherm

14

An organism with a stable body temperature is called a ____.

Homeotherm

15

When does shivering happen?

When blood vessels in the skin constrict

16

When does sweating happen?

When blood vessels in the skin dilate

17

What is the word for adjusting to changing temperatures?

Acclimatization

18

A chloroplast has an envelope of 2 membranes surrounding a dense fluid called the ____.

Stroma

19

In a plant, carbon dioxide enters the leaf and oxygen exits, but way of microscopic pores called ____.

Stomata

20

How many hydrogen bonds does Guanine share with Cytosine?

3

21

How many hydrogen bonds does Adenine share with Thymine?

2

22

What are the name of the enzymes that untwist the double helix for replication?

Helicases

23

_______ helps relieve the strain of the twisting by breaking, swivelling, and rejoining DNA strands.

Topoisomerase

24

DNA polymerases can add nucleotides only to the _' end of a primer or growing DNA strand.

3

25

What enzyme joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of all the Okazaki fragments into a continuous DNA strand?

DNA ligase

26

Where are telomeres located and what is their purpose?

End of DNA
Protect organism's genes

27

Is DNA negatively or positively charged?

Negatively

28

5' end starts with a _____, and the 3' end starts with a _____.

Phosphate, Sugar

29

DNA wrapped around histones, forming bead-like structures, are called what?

Nucleosomes

30

In what phase does DNA replication occur? And where in the cell?

S phase
In nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

31

What is transcription?

Synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA (DNA to RNA)

32

What is translation?

Synthesis of polypeptide using information in mRNA (mRNA to protein)

33

Codon to mRNA is the same as anticodon to ____.

tRNA

34

What is the basis for the difference in how the leading and lagging strands of DNA molecules are synthesized?

DNA polymerase can join new nucleotides only to the 3' end of a growing strand

35

What is photophosphorylation?

Synthesis of ATP using light in chloroplasts

36

Glucose in fruit is stored in the ____, and it can regulate ____ ____.

Vacuole, Water intake

37

What is the difference between the arrangements of the veins in monocots and eudicots?

Monocots have parallel major veins
Eudicots have a branched network of major veins

38

A plant's outer protective coating is....

Dermal tissue layer

39

In plants, ____ conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots (how hot water moves through a straw).

Xylem

40

In plants, ____ transports sugars from where they are made to where they are needed.

Phloem

41

What is the function of a root cap?

Protects and releases polysaccharides so the root can push through the soil easier

42

Where can you only find root hairs?

Zone of differentiation

43

IF the ____ ____ of a plant is cut off, it is no longer able to grow.

Apical meristem