Flashcards in Final Deck (39):
What are three issues impacting the tropical forest in Costa Rica?
- Cattle grazing
- Cash crops in forest
What are three characteristics of tropical forests?
- Diversity & coevolution
- Seasonality of system is determined by rainfall
- Highly weathered soils
What are four take-home points of tropical forest restoration?
- Many factors may limit recovery
- Lack of seeds is important
- Competition is important
- Speed of recovery is site-specific
What are four strategies for tropical forest restoration?
- Assisted natural regeneration
- Remove disturbance
- Attract fauna
- Plant native tree species
What are five types of wetlands?
- Coastal wetlands
- Freshwater marshes
- Forested freshwater wetlands
What are three types of freshwater marsh?
- Tidal marsh: near the coast, mix of freshwater, brackish, and salty
- Prairie potholes: glacial depressions
- Vernal pools: seasonally-flooded glacial depressions
What are three factors that delineate wetlands?
- Wetlands are transitional ecosystems with species adapted along a gradient of abiotic conditions
- Very complicated soil chemistry due to hydrology
- Vegetation adapted to flooded and low oxygen conditions
What are three variable factors of wetland hydrology?
What are three variable factors of soil chemistry in wetlands?
- Lack oxygen
- High organic matter: mineral is <20% organic matter; organic soil is >20% organic matter
- “Oxidized rhizosphere”: looks red along roots
What are three reasons why wetlands are important?
- Erosion buffer
- Flood buffer
- Sediment stabilization
What re four stresses to wetlands?
- Physical (filling, draining, flooding)
- Climate change (sea level rise)
- Chemicals (nutrients/toxics)
- Biological (grazing, invasives)
What are three restoration strategies for wetlands?
- Hydrology (topography, flood regime, dechannelization)
- Reduce contaminants/nutrients (source reduction, dredging)
- Revegetate (seeding, inoculation, sods)
How much of the San Francisco tidal wetlands have been destroyed?
What are four major 1970's environmental policies that protect the San Francisco tidal wetlands?
- Clean Water Act (1972)
- Coastal Zone Management Act (1972)
- Endangered Species Act (1973)
- Clean Water Act 404 Permits (mitigation)
What is a culvert?
A drain or waterway below a road
What is a levee?
Embankment built along a river
What is sinuosity?
Channel length / valley length
What is a checkdam?
A dam designed to back up or divert water
What are three characteristics of rivers?
What does it mean to channelize a river?
- Increase velocity and rate of flow
- Decrease base flow
What are three restoration strategies for a channelized river?
- Reestablish connection with floodplain
- Restore river morphology and habitat diversity
- In-stream structures (checkdams, logs, boulders, woody debris)
What are three restoration strategies for river water quality and erosion?
- Reduce chemical, nutrient, and sediment inputs
- Wetlands and buffer strips
- Improve land management practices
The upper, oxygen-rich layer of a lake
Middle layer of a lake - changes in temp and salt
The cold, oxygen-poor, bottom later of a lake
Low nutrient, clear lake
"Intermediate" nutrient lake
High nutrient lake
What are six stresses to lakes?
- Water diversion
- Toxic substances
- Exotic species
What are three restoration methods for lakes?
- Prevent the problem from happening
- Treat waste
- Riparian zone management / wetland creation
What in-lake material can be used to reduce phosphorus?
What is the process of dredging up the bottom of a lake to aerate it, then replacing it?
What are four methods to remove toxic substances in lakes?
- Remove at the source
- Remove through sediment
- Plant harvesting
What are four lake restoration methods that don't stop the problem at the source?
- In-lake methods for removing nutrients
- Sediment skimming
- Deep water discharge
- Hypolimnetic aeration
What are five marine restoration strategies?
- Marine reserves
- Improved fisheries practices
- Animal translocation/reintroduction
- Kelp forest & seagrass restoration
What are four stresses on coral reefs?
- Boats / human activity
- Dynamite/cyanide fishing
- Ocean acidification
What is monitoring?
Systematic and orderly gathering of specific data over a period of time, in order to make sure that certain conditions are achieved
What is surveillance monitoring?
Identifying problems early on in a project