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Flashcards in Final Deck (31):
1

Alpha decay

4
He/a
2

2

Beta decay

0
B/e
-1

3

Gamma emission

0. 0
e. + y
-1. 0

4

Position emission

0
e
+1

5

Electron capture

-1
e (goes on left side of equation)
0

6

How does a Geiger counter work

It conducts electricity when there’s ions in a gas due to presence of ionizing radiation

7

Fission vs fusion

Fission: neutron splits a heavy nucleus into 2 heavy nuclei, does not need high temperatures
Fusion: combining lighter nuclei into heavier, more stable nucleus, requires extremely high temp, lots of energy required, products not radioactive

8

How does a nuclear power plant work

Heat generated by reaction produces steam that turns turbine connected to generator; contains enriched uranium surrounded by water to absorb heat.

9

Effects of radiation exposure

Ranges from possible carcinogenic or DNA mutations to Death

10

How to protect against radiation

a particles: piece of paper
B particles: 3-5 mm Al
y particles: 3 cm lead

11

Catalyst (define and properties)

Increase in reaction rate; lowers activation energy

12

Enzyme

Biological catalyst; large protein molecules; carries out specific rxn type

13

Frequency factor in relation to Arrhenius equation

# of collision per second
Orientation factor (shape)
It’s the A in the equation

14

Effective collisions in relation to Arrhenius equation

Bringing about chemical rxn; aka activation energy
Additional energy absorbed by molecules to achieve threshold energy

15

What is fractional distillation

Method used to separate mixture of compounds based on differing boiling points. Used to separate mixture into component parts/fractions.

16

What are collocation properties

Properties dependent on solute concentration but not identity
-vapor pressure
-boiling/freezing point
-osmosis/osmotic pressure

17

What’s molality

n solute/kg solvent

18

What’s the Van’t Goff factor

(i) # of ions in formula unit; theoretical value is given value and usually higher and experimental value is one deduced from experiment and usually lower than theoretical.

19

When do we see deviations from Raoult’s Law

When solute-solution interactions are stronger (negative deviation) or when solvent-solvent interactions are stronger (positive deviation)

20

Define osmosis

Fluid flow through semipermeable membrane to balance solute concentration on both membrane sides

21

Define osmotic pressure

Pressure applied across membrane to stop solvent flow through membrane

22

1st law of Thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

23

Define enthalpy

Energy associated with breaking/forming chemical reaction bonds

24

Define spontaneity

Process that proceeds without outside intervention. (They are irreversible; if a process is spontaneous it will be -)

25

Define entropy

Degree of disorder or randomness in system. Related to molecule motion (delta S)

26

Define Gibbs free energy

Thermodynamic quantity equal to enthalpy

27

2nd Law thermodynamics

Entropy of universe is constantly increasing

28

3rd Law Thermodynamics

Entropy of perfect crystal is 0 when temp is absolute 0. All atoms in perfect order.

29

Define average rate

Change in concentration of reactant or product over specific time interval

30

Define instantaneous rate

Rxn right that particular instant determined graphically as tangent slope of concentration vs time plot not the same as average rate

31

Define initial rate

Straight early in the reaction most rapid reactions occur early