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Flashcards in Final Deck (70):
1

Punctuated Equilibrium Model

First meeting, create a midpoint, resist change to deadlines

2

5 stages of Group development

Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Adjourning

3

Types of group tasks

Additive: sum of all members
Disjunction: dependent on best group member
Conjunction: limited by poorest member

4

Group Norms

Collective expectations that members of social units have on how to act

5

Roles

Positions in a group with a set of expected behaviours assigned to them

6

Role Ambiguity & factors that lead to it

Roles are unclear
Factors: Organizational, the role sender, the focal person

7

Consequences of role ambiguity

Job Stress
Job Dissatisfaction
Reduced OC
Lowered performance
Higher turnover

8

Types of Role Conflict

Intrasender
Intersender
Interrole
Person-Role

9

Consequences of Role Conflict

Job Dissatisfaction
Job Stress
Lower OC
High Turnover

10

How to prevent role conflict

Avoid self contradicting messages
Talk with other role senders
Be sensitive to multiple role demands
Find the right person for the right role

11

Formal vs informal Status

Formal: Manager identifies, status symbols are tangible, status based on seniority and role in organization

Informal: not well advertised, linked to performance, gender & race

12

Factors Influencing Cohesiveness

External threat of survival
Completing goal
Diversity
Group size

13

2 types of Social Loafing

Free Rider: lower the effort at expense of group

Sucker: getting screwed over so they lower their effort

14

How to Counteract Social Loafing

-Make individual performance more visible
- work is interesting
- increase feelings of indespensability
- increase performance feedback
- reward group performance

15

Cross Functional Teams
(Goal of it)

Teams with people of different specialties, usually experts
Goal:
- Innovation
- Speed
- Quality

16

Advantages of Virtual Teams

Global, 24hour team
Reduces expenses
Expand Labour market

17

Challenges of Virtual Teams

Trust
Miscommunication
Isolation
High cost (commercial vs Skype)

18

Motives for social conformity

Compliance
Identification
Internalization

19

Realistic Job Preview

Reduces unrealistic expectations
Reduces turnover
Improves job performance

20

Psychological Contract

Reciprocity of obligations and promises
Breach causes: anger, betrayal

21

Institutionalized

Structured programs
- reduces uncertainty
- encourages new hires to accept org. norms

Results in:
- lower role ambiguity
- higher satisfaction and OC
- lower stress and turnover

22

Individualized

Relative absence of structure
Encourages new hires to question, & develop their own approach

Result in employees changing the way they perform tasks or roles

23

Socialization Tactics

Context:
- Collective vs Individual
- Formal vs Informal
Content:
- Sequential vs Random
- Fixed vs Variable
Social:
- Serial vs Disjunctive
- Investiture vs Divestiture

24

An effective mentor....

Help both career and psychological functions

25

Proactive Socialization

-Feedback seeking
- Information Seeking
- Observation
- General Socialization
- Networking

26

Consideration & Initiating Structure

Manager is concentrated on goal and approachable

27

Situational Theories of Leadership

Leadership is contingent on the setting (employee task org)

28

Participative Leadership & the pros/cons

Involving employees in work related decisions

Pros: Motivation, quality, acceptance
Cons: Time & energy, loss of power, lack of receptivity

29

Fielder’s Theory

Leadership Orientation measured by LPC.
High LPC score= relationship oriented
Low LPC score= task oriented
Good or Poor relation
Structured or unstructured task
Strong or weak position power

30

What does Participation increase and when does it work best?

Increases: Job satisfaction & productivity

Works best when: Employees are favourable about it, they are smart, and participation would be useful for the task

31

Social Exchange Theory

Social exchange theory: be nice to me I’m nice to you

32

Transactional Leadership

Contingent reward
Laissez faire leadership
High expectations

33

Transformational Leadership

Idealized Influence
Inspirational Motivation
Intellectual Stimulation
Individualized consideration

34

Authentic Leadership

True to one’s self
Self-Awareness
Unbiased Processing
Relationship Transparencies
Internalized Moral perspective

35

How to build self awareness

Introspection: strengths & weaknesses, values beliefs

36

True North by Bill George. Who to look out for?

Authentic Leaders shaped by real life events

Look out for:
Imposters
Rationalizers
Glory seekers
Loners
Shooting stars

37

Building Balanced Processing

Ask lots of questions from different sources, listen listen listen, avoid perception biases

38

How to Speak to Inspire Action

Speak to those who listen
Show up to give
Start with the end in mind
Speak on what you know and care about

39

SAFER Leadership Research

Speak
Act
Focus
Engage
Recognize

40

What is Power?

Capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence

41

5 bases of individual power

Legitimate
Reward
Coercive (punishment & threat)
Referent (well liked)
Expert (specialized, linked with effectiveness)

42

Empowerment gives people:

Authority
Opportunity
Motivation

43

Influence Tactics

Assertiveness
Ingratiation
Rationality
Exchange
Upward Appeal
Coalition Formation

44

Subunit Power

Power held by a department

45

Strategic Contigencies & when subunits control them

Critical Factors affecting organizational effectiveness that are controlled by a key subunit

When:
Scarcity
Uncertainty
Centrality
Substitutability

46

Organizational Politics & when/where they occur

The pursuit of self interest in an org

When:
Middle & upper management
Subunits with vague goals
Important issues

47

Political Skill & the 4 facets

Political Skill is the ability to understand others and use it to influence them

4 Facets:
Social astuteness
Interpersonal influence
Apparent sincerity
Networking ability

48

Aspects of Networking

Maintaining contacts
Socializing
Engaging in professional activities
Participating in community activities
Increase internal visibility

49

Causes of unethical behaviour

Gain
Performance pressure
Role conflict
Strong org identification
Competition
Personality
Culture

50

Defensiveness

Defence or protection of self interest

51

Basics of Org communication

Communication by strict chain of command

Downward
Upward
Horizontal

52

Mum effect

Reluctance of an individual to relay negative info to another out of fear of damaging

53

Grapevine

Informal communication, not always correct and could be rumours

54

Verbal language

Avoid Jargon

55

Non-Verbal language

Physically close, eye contact, touch , lean forward
Vary across cultures

56

Active Listening

Ask questions
Watch body language
Paraphrase
Empathy

57

How to improve organizational communication

- Provision of explanations
- 360 degree feedback
- Employee Survey
- Suggestion systems
- Telephone hotlines
- management training

58

Interpersonal Conflict

When one person/group/org subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another

59

What causes org conflict?

- Identification to a particular group
- Mutual dependency on each other
- Difference in power, status, culture
- Ambiguous goals, jurisdictions,
- Scarce resources

60

Types of Conflict

Relationship
Task ( what task should be done)
Process (how it should be done)

61

Modes of Managing Conflict

All are functions of Assertiveness & Cooperativeness

- Avoiding
- Accomodating
- Competing
- Compromising
- Collaborating

62

Managing conflict with Negotiation

Distributive ( win-lose)
Integrative (win-win)
Third party involvement (mediator vs arbitrator)

63

Stress vs Stressors

Stressors: events or conditions that induce stress. Dependent on personality

Stress: psychological reactions to demands

64

Personality theories that affect stress

- Locus of Control (behaviour controlled by internal or external forces)
- Type A personality (encounter more stressful situations)
- Negative Affectivity (view world in negative light)

65

Burnout & the symptoms

Incompatible demands leads to stress

Symptoms:
Emotional exhaustion
Depersonalization
Reduced personal accomplishments

66

Job Demands-Resources Model

Job Demand
Job Resources: features of a job that are functional
Ex:
- The org (pay)
- Interpersonal and social relations (supervisor support)
- Organization of work (role clarity)
- The task itself (performance feedback)

67

Stressors in Organizational Life

- Interpersonal Conflict
- Work-family Conflict
- Job insecurity & change
- Role ambiguity
- Sexual Harassment

68

Reactions to Stress

Behavioural (problem solving, drugs)
Psychological (defence mechanisms, emotions)
Physiological ( high blood pressure, heart attack)

69

Reducing or Coping with stress tactics

- Job redesign
- Social Support
- HR policies
- Stress management programs
- Work-Life balance

70

Factors of Psychological Health and Safety

- Psychological Support
- Org culture
- Clear Leadership & expectations
- Civility & respect
- Balance
- Engagement