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Flashcards in Final Deck (75):
1

part of the core structure of several antibiotic families, (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams)

β-lactam ring

2

β-lactam antibiotics work by

inhibiting bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

3

Bacterial resistance occurs as a result of the expression of one of many genes for the production of

β-lactamases

4

Amoxicillin + Clavulanate potassium

Augmentin

5

inhibits the beta lactamase

Clavulanic acid

6

breaks down the antibiotic before it can work against bacteria

Beta lactamase

7

Clavulanic acid alone would only inhibit _______, not bacterial cell wall synthesis

beta lactamase

8

Bind to 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome, Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis, and can be a problem for the liver

Macrolides

9

Inhibit DNA gyrase

Fluoroquinolones, such as Ciprofloxacin

10

treatment of sinus, lung and bladder infections by eradicating Gram (-) aerobic bacteria

Fluoroquinolones

11

Synergistic with Beta-lactam antibiotics

Fluoroquinolones

12

Pseudoephedrine contraindications

- Adrenergic effect
- Tachycardia
- RAS fired up
- Avoid if you have anxiety
- Narrow angle glaucoma
- Hypertension

13

Synthetic morphine analog which Inhibits cough signals from the medulla

Dextromethorphan

14

Drug of choice for urethritis and Very effective for respiratory infections caused by H. influenza and Moraxella catarrhalis

Z pak/Azithromycin

15

Who might benefit from taking Z pak/Azithromycin for community acquired pneumonia?

Walking pneumonia (Mycoplasma pneumoniae)

16

Targets H2 receptor in the stomach to inhibit proton release from the parietal cells

H2 blockers

17

H2 blockers are selective to the

stomach

18

strongest in terms of lowering stomach acid secretion

PPIs, fallowed by H2 blockers

19

creates a physical lubricant in the stomach

Sulfarcrate

20

increase stomach pH

Antacids

21

Stimulates smooth muscle, increasing peristalsis.

stimulant laxatives

22

mechanism of stimulant laxatives

Causes chloride secretion into the lumen of the intestines which is fallowed by water

23

Pregnancy and lactating patients should NOT take

misoprostol

24

Why should pregnant and lactating patients NOT take misoprostol

Softens cervix and causes miscarriage

25

Blocks the synthesis of H Pylori cell wall


Bismuth subsalicylate

26

Bacteriostatic agent against H Pylori

Tetracycline

27

Antibiotic and antiprotozoal and Typically used for bacterial vaginosis

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

28

Anti-nausea medication (used in chemo etc.)

Zofran

29

Binds to serotonin receptors which can cause a terrible headache

Zofran

30

Loperamide (Imodium) related to what drug class?

opioids

31

Risks of Loperamide (Imodium)

Colonic inhibition→ Constipation and Opioid overdoseq

32

secretory diarrhea

Loperamide (Imodium)

33

Antimuscarinics Used for urinary incontinence

Oxybutynin (Ditropan) and Tolterodine (Detrol)

34

Blocks reflexes mediated by Vagus n., Reduces nasal discharge, and Prevents bronchoconstriction

Ipratropium bromide (atrovent)

35

anticholinergic Can be used for both

motion sickness and postoperative nausea

36

Sulfa drugs for bladder infection

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim

37

First line therapy for UTI and Prostatitis

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)

38

Stops/slows the breakdown of NOS

Sildenafil (Viagra)

39

What are the uses for recombinant antibodies in cancer treatment?

Targeted chemotherapy

40

Causes specific islands of tumors to be irradiated

Rituximab (Rituxan), Bevacizumab (Avastin)

41

two uses for Methotrexate

RA and Cancer

42

Methotrexate Stops

cell division

43

- Necrosis of the jaw
- Subtrochanteric fractures
- Diarrhea, nausea and abdominal pain

adverse affects of bisphosphonates

44

Stop the HIV particle from reproducing

protease inhibitors

45

Opioid antagonist for overdoses

Naloxone

46

Naloxone has a higher affinity for

opioid receptors

47

Decreases synthesis of T3 and T4

Methimazole

48

Treatment for hyperthyroidism

Methimazole

49

Taken in several doses to Inhibit conversion of T4 to T3

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

50

There is NO going back from a ________ treatment

radioactive iodine

51

Beta blockers for Tachycardia, Hypertension, or Thyroid storm

Propranolol/Atenolol/Metoprolol

52

Acute increase of blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature that is life threatening

Thyroid storm

53

Reduces adrenergic stimulation

Beta blockers: Propranolol/Atenolol/Metoprolol

54

For hormone replacement therapy what are the Bioidenticals options?

Testosterone

55

For hormone replacement therapy what are the synthetic options?

Levothyroxine (Synthroid)

56

natural sources of T3 and patients that would prefer this type?

Armour Thyroid for patients with poor peripheral conversion

57

Metformin an appropriate treatment for a patient with IDDM?

No, it only inhibits gluconeogenesis

58

More useful in Type 2 diabetes than type 1

Metformin

59

increases peripheral sensitivity to circulating insulin

Metformin

60

a strong dose of a sulfonylurea drug can cause

Severe hypoglycemia

61

evolution of insulin administration

Equal parts of short and long acting insulin to decreases spikes

62

Long acting somatostatin analogue that treats GH excess such as Acromegaly/Gigantism

Octreotide acetate

63

What is a treatment for prolactin secreting tumors?

Dopamine agonists like Bromocriptine or Cabergoline

64

PT =

Prothrombin time (clot time)

65

INR used to monitor strong

anti-coagulants (mostly Warfarin)

66

What is a hormonal drug target for treatment BPH?

5-alpha reductase inhibitors

67

Inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase.

alpha reductase inhibitors: Proscar, Avodart, Propecia

68

What is a non hormonal drug target for treating BPH?

Alpha blockers: Prazosin (Minipress), Doxazosin (Cardura)

69

Dilates arterioles and veins

Alpha blockers: Prazosin (Minipress), Doxazosin (Cardura)

70

adverse effects of Alpha blockers

Vivid dreams and depression

71

Contraindications to Alpha blockers

CVD and Viagra

72

What organisms most commonly cause vaginitis?

Gardnerella, Candida, Trichomonas

73

Atrophy of the tissues and Steroidal rosacea (mid-face rash)

side effects of topical steroids

74

abused by some to achieve a state of euphoria similar to that of morphine and other opioids

Dextromethorphan (Sudafed)

75

Sudafed is an opioid

agonist