Flashcards in Final Deck (98):
What kind of state does Machiavelli advocate for?
Warfare and idea state that can be dedicated to the liberty of the political unit while being able to defend itself
What is Machiavelli's view on human nature?
Humans have free will but are susceptible to environmental conditioning, are thus corruptible, self-interested, erratic, changeable, ungrateful
Humans subject to fortuna (fate) but can prepare against it and push it around, make it treat us well
Humans prone to self-deception, value appearance over truth and thus don't understand how we truly are
What does Machiavelli think about religion?
Realizes that most humans need it but does not like Christianity or the Roman Catholic Church as they encourage weakness and suffering
Religion is useful as a tool to motivate, shame, and cause people to strike for greater things
What does Machiavelli think about the good life?
Admires people who possess virtu (intellect, courage, manliness, being able to put aside personal morals and interests in favor of the greater good)
What is political virtu for Machiavelli?
The development of good laws (to keep people respectful of state, protect against fortuna) and a strong military (builds common identity and purpose, protects state)
What are the good forms of government for Machiavelli?
Principality, aristocracy, democracy (governments for the people)
What is the best form of government for Machiavelli?
A mixed government republic (looks at the examples of Sparta, Venice and Rome) that will be able to stave off the Polybian Cycle by making different groups work together
Headed by a wise lawgiver in the model of the Roman dictator (given temporary absolute power in face of crisis), have censor office to watch over morals of citizens and avoid corruption
Limits on luxury and wealth as they create corruption (as seen in Rome which led to the republic's downfall)
Establishment of civic religion (as seen in Rome) that focuses on advancement of polity as opposed to focus on the afterlife
What freedoms does Machiavelli envision in his ideal polity?
Not freedom to do whatever you want but rather to enjoy possessions and rewards of polity without fear of them being stolen
What kind of military does Machiavelli envision for his polity?
Citizen army (in contrast to mercenaries) as they are more dependable (defending freedoms of own polity) and participate in building of common identity and purpose
What does Machiavelli think about women?
Can have virtu but it is harder since they have to keep up feminine appearance at all times
In what ways was the 17th century a revolutionary century?
1) Religious revolution (30 years war that ended in the Treaty of Westphalia, forbidding future wars over religion)
2) Scientific revolution led by Newton and Bacon, characterized by the desire to reduce nature into observable laws, rebellion against the unquestioning attitude pushed by the Church and universities at the time
3) Political revolution that saw the dominance of the sovereign territorial state
What question does Hendrik Spruyt ask?
Why the sovereign territorial state emerged in Europe and nowhere else in world
What was the political organization in Europe like in 1000AD?
Very weak compared to other parts of world due to feudal divisions (mixed loyalties to feudal lords, HRE and Pope), state emerges as an answer to this problem and becomes a type of technology that allows Europe to dominate world over next 1000 years
What are the three theories on the emergence of the state?
1) Tilley's warfare state (need state to organize human survival)
2) Idea state (state gives us the liberty and equality essential to good life)
3) Spruyt's economic state (state is an effective political institution at producing stuff needed to fulfill human needs)
What are the three types of state experiment in Europe ~1000AD?
1) City state (small, wealthy, concerned with luxury goods, preferred by merchants and can keep military)
2) City leagues (confederation of states with diffused decision making, focused on manufacturing medium goods, join together for protection)
3) Sovereign territorial states (small towns concerned with bulk goods that have to join together due to lack of independent strength, delegate monopoly over violence to sovereign)
What does Calvin think about human nature?
Believes in free will but also original sin, humans tend to be slaves to their own desires. Most people damned but optimistic about some
People are saved by God
What does Calvin think about the good life?
Concerned mostly with good afterlife as eternity is a long time
What kind of state does Calvin advocate for?
Small, near-theological city state where the church regulates thought and the state executes laws and external conduct. Small is better because it avoids the top-down, corruptible power structure of the RCC
Constitution will be democracy mixed with aristocracy, as a monarchy is too dependant on the whims of a single person. Purpose of laws will be to promote piety, punish crime, provide protection and help the poor
Structure of government involved elected syndics and small council on side of state, consistory composed of church and state that provides moral guidance
What does Calvin think about revolution?
Authorities are always God-sent so average people should obey and suffer, think of bad rulers as punishment
As Magistrates are also God-sent, they can engage in revolt if time is right
What does Hobbes think about human nature?
Humans are self-interested, have reason but reason is a tool subject to desire. We are slaves to our desires and as such there is not much difference between humans (noble vs. peasant, man vs. woman). Ultimate desire is self-preservation, leading to natural conflict with everybody around us
World is somewhat deterministic as humans are "matter in motion", every move we make dictated by what has previously happened. This is observable by all humans through cause and effect, feeling the sensations that we experience. Sensations are building blocks of our lives
What does Hobbes think about religion?
Believes that it is important in organizing society but doesn't like the split sovereignty caused by separate Church and state. As most claims made about religion are not verifiable, should be up to King to decide the state religion
What does Hobbes think about the state of nature?
It is violent and an every man for himself situation. As there is complete liberty (absence of external impediment to actions), war can break out any time and we are free to do anything to secure self-preservation.
Life is nasty, brutish, short
What are Hobbes' suggestions to achieve good life in nature? (laws of nature)
Seek peace, join others to gain security if possible and give up liberties if others are willing to do so too for security
Follow golden rule and build alliances (covenants) with others. Never be too trusting of others, however, as self-interest always comes first
What is the ideal political institution for Hobbes?
A commonwealth (civitas / leviathan) headed by sovereign who has covenant with his people. People enter into this commonwealth and give up all covenants made in state of nature. Sovereign is all powerful and acts as the sword to protect some liberty, enforce agreements
People give up all liberty to gain some liberty - worth it because no guarantees in state of nature and better to have some liberty protected. Those who choose not to join become threat.
What are the powers for the sovereign for Hobbes?
Creates laws but not bound by own laws (given maximum flexibility in rule)
Sovereign cannot harm subjects as subjects authorize him to do anything. As authors of sovereign power, any harm done to people is done by people to themselves
Sovereign decides morality, what is right and wrong (as multiple definitions of morality lead to chaos)
Sovereign defines words and creates common political language (because if given opportunity, people will twist words to suit their own self interest), this way all contracts understood in same way
What does Hobbes think about revolution?
Don't do it, even if sovereign is bad the state of nature will always be worse. A few deaths caused by bad actions is better than constant state of war
How should the sovereign act for Hobbes and why is Hobbes confident that sovereign will act well?
Sovereign should never relinquish power, instruct public (lead by example, use 10 commandments of Bible), create laws that maximize liberty as much as possible (clear rationale, rewards for faithful, mobilization of able bodies, charity to help weak)
Confident because sovereign is accountable to God, also good of people and sovereign cannot be separated (acting well is in sovereign's self-interest, strong commonwealth supplements sovereign's own power)
What are the three types of government for Hobbes and which one is best?
Aristocracy, Monarchy, Democracy (does not talk about the bad versions of these - not empirical)
Monarchy is the best, allows for alignment of public and private good (Monarch's interest can only be advanced with public interest). Undivided sovereignty means less division in society, makes succession continuous and simple
What are some of Hobbes' policy ideas?
Curb high taxes, curb individual wealth and ambition, avoid war as it is unpredictable and will sap strength of commonwealth, limit private property
What are the five paradoxes of Hobbes?
1. Satisfying desires (giving up liberty to gain some liberty)
2. Maximizing power (giving up all power to have some power)
3. Peace and security (quest for this makes us more vulnerable)
4. Developing reasoning (humans have capability to develop reasoning and science but then give it all to sovereign)
5. Afterlife (Hobbes is atheist but lets sovereign decide all matters of religion)
What are the contextual differences between Locke and Hobbes?
Both lived at same time but instead of rationalizing absolutism, Locke rationalizes revolution against it. Locke was part of the minority being oppressed by the Anglican King Charles
What are some of the ideas that Locke advocates for?
Constitutionalism and independent parliament
Private property rights that are based from individual
Toleration of minority groups (other than Roman Catholics as they are loyal to foreign force - Pope)
Individualism (give consent to sovereign but never give up ability to take it away)
What does Locke think about human nature?
Advocate of just world theory (no original sin so own choices matter, humans born as blank slate - Tabula Rasa) but still believes in creation by God
People pushed by desire to avoid uneasiness and pain, seek pleasure
People influenced by sensations (similar to Hobbes) and while capable of free thought, can choose badly
What does Locke mean when he says that humans can see what God wants?
People are directed by the laws of nature which are created by God, can thus use reason to investigate the world and create science
Whether we live good afterlife depends on our actions in the world, not based on doctrine or thought
What does Locke think about women?
They are equal in life and marriage but still expects that the family will be headed by the man
Play important part in God's plan as they are responsible for procreation
What does Locke think about the good life?
Believes that highest good is still afterlife but based on action in world, lay aside doctrines of Church
People should be sociable and procreate (good polity = lots of people)
Should develop the world and our own property as this benefits the productivity of polity
Do not waste stuff (less for others to develop)
Help others through charity (not random giving, more so taking time to know people to make sure that they do not abuse charity), confront others who are anti-social to preserve mankind
What does Locke think about the state of nature?
Not so bad as while it is a state of liberty, people cannot do everything (God creates laws of nature that guide us, judge us)
Can live well without government and people can thus revolt without fearing regression to nature
What does Locke think about contracts and consent?
Cannot be entered into under duress vs Hobbes who thinks that duress is fine in state of nature
Some are unacceptable (slavery) and some are irrational (signing up for absolutist government)
Concerned with continuing consent in contrast to Hobbes who believes that initial express consent is enough
What does Locke think about religion?
Involves personal covenant between God and people, doesn't need commonwealth or church and sovereign shouldn't decide state religion
Wary of large religious groups, religion should be self-directed and highly tolerant of religious minorities
No toleration for atheists - they are not reasonable enough to see that world directed by God and thus do not fear him, can act wrongly
Separate church and state
Why does Locke think we leave state of nature?
Inconvenient (lack of agreed laws, impartial judges and difficult to enforce laws due to no authority)
Appetitive can be dangerous, create problems, cause war
How do contracts develop for Locke?
In state of nature, no contract. In creation of contract people give up right to complete liberty and right to execute laws
Part 1 of contract is original compact and creates a community, must be unanimous
Part 2 of contrast is the trust (government being trustee acting in interests of people - trustors) and creates a type of government, based on majority (federative/foreign policy and prerogative/emergency powers of executive, legislative powers)
Part 3 of contract involves choosing representatives, based on majority on ongoing basis
Government power limited as it is bound by the contract
What does sovereignty mean for Locke?
Sovereignty rests in the people who place trust in government, have ability to continually check the legislature even though it is the supreme power
How does Locke justify revolution?
Describes it as an appeal to heaven, last step that can be taken if appeals to government and majority are not fruitful
Unlike rebellion (revolt based on self-interest), revolution involves a defense against the offending government and returning the community to the original principles of the contract. Is thus a defensive and conservative act
Locke's thinking influenced by the Glorious Revolution that he lived through, where Catholic James II offended principles that Protestant England and was removed rather bloodlessly. Doesn't think that revolution is common occurrence as only the most egregious abuses will convince large group to revolt
Summarize life of Locke
Childhood lived in English Civil War but liked the execution of Charles I
Was secretary to Earl of Shaftesbury of Scottish Whig party
Summarize life of Hobbes
Lives in time of lots of religious war and revolution, has to flee England for Holland
Summarize life of Machiavelli
Dream job was diplomat and wrote Prince to Borgia ruler of Florence to try and impress him, becomes diplomat but fired when Florentine Republic falls to Spanish, comes back when Republic rises again but doesn't find work again
Summarize life of Rousseau
Born in Calvinist Geneva, abandoned by parents and goes on adventure in nature when shut out of city gates at age 15. Self-exiled from civilization many times to try and get in touch with nature, abandoned his 5 kids but always returned to civilization eventually
What are Rousseau's three stages of human nature?
Tale of being corrupted by civilization
R1 = state of nature:
Humans are naturally solitary, physically strong and used to hardship, satisfied by simple desires and are guided by instinct. Compare ourselves physically to other animals but not other people. No language and thus no reason, no morality but naturally compassionate towards other people, only harm other people when need for self-preservation
R2 = savage society:
Arrive here via necessity, either because of natural disaster or resource scarcity that requires cooperation (hunting). Develop language and thus morality, comparison to other humans. Still highly compassionate however and can be viewed as state of nature plus technological and social perks. Produces unforeseen consequences for future generations.
R3 = civilized society:
Bad! Civilization produces diseases, luxuries distort us and prevent compassion, too much egocentric comparison over superficial things (amour-propre). People demand respect from other people (superiority complex) and develop capability for lies and deception. People become fake and show off (selfie culture), driven by need to gather evermore property
What does Rousseau think about religion?
Believes in God out of faith, doesn't think that he is verifiable and thus doesn't believe in miracles or original sin either
Thinks that religion should be personal and that church is a cult
God is not omnipotent and thus doesn't produce morality, civilization produces evil
Large part of worship for Rousseau is simply appreciating and being grateful for life - thinks indigenous peoples are cool because they are closer to savage civilization
What are Rousseau's thoughts on the state of war?
Dumb! State of nature is great and full liberty, humans falling for the protection of private property by placing faith in sovereign government is folly
What does Rousseau think about the good life?
R1 = showing compassion to others, not taking from others unless need to self-preserve, just living life by instinct
R2 = enjoying perks of society such as sociability and increased opportunities to show compassion around others
R3 = no good life possible unless make active effort to go back to nature/countryside with nice group of friends
What does Rousseau think about political institutions?
R1 = none outside of occasional meetups and cooperation
R2= small family units headed by a leader (comparable to eikos)
R3 = observes two types: French absolute monarchy that has been gathering more and more power over his life (lives through Louis XIV - XVI but not revolution), Genevan city-state (which is better but views it as too intolerant)
What is the proper role of the sovereign for Rousseau?
Keep people from being corrupted and protect their compassion, maximize liberty as much as possible (don't give up any!) by keeping entire citizenry actively involved in politics
What is Rousseau's R4 civilization?
Special type of social contract based on active legitimacy and no rule by force
Describes sovereign as entire people when active in politics (vs. state which is people when inactive)
Entire community is bound by contract, everybody gives up some liberty to every other person so end up with same amount of liberty, everybody makes up legislature and makes constitution
Different from Locke and Hobbes' sovereigns in that express consent is continuous and be given by every future generation
What is Rousseau's general will?
Different from will of all (individual interests added up), is an informed national interest that advances the interests of the entire community
Helps build nationalism and identification of self-interest with national interest. If disagree with what's best for community then the individual is wrong (self-sacrifice for greater good)
What are the benefits and criticisms (discussed in class) of general will?
Keeps against corruption by developing compassion for others and community interest (though Rousseau does not adequately address property)
Maximizes liberty and equality but not freedom for sake of freedom, rather political liberty and ability to be the good person that humans are able to be (though Rousseau seems to be skeptical of how minorities will exist here)
How does Rousseau build his ideal political institution?
Based on Geneva, small state so all men can gather in legislature and know each other, not urbanized but rather disparate community of self-sustaining farmers who are relatively equal in wealth
Legislature (sovereign) meets at set times and at emergency, is simple and focuses on larger principles
Government (executive) needed to enforce laws but unfortunately in long run will lead to death of community through conflict with sovereign. Good news is death can be delayed through good construction of polity (bigger government better since more people equates to less efficiency and more conflict). However, the bigger the state, the more concentrated the executive needs to be (large state = monarchy, med = elected aristocracy because hereditary bad and unqualified, small = democracy) as it is too hard for lots of people to come to consensus on the many issues that face big state
Need simple civil religion (doesn't like focus of Christianity on afterlife similar to Locke) that isn't separate from state
Need censor to keep good manners, total freedom of speech leads to corruption and selfishness
Need lawgiver who is a genius to create the ideal polity, pretend that he is receiving messages from God to change people to become ready for the R4 social contract
What does Bentham think about human nature?
Start as blank slates that are influenced by sensations (pleasure and pain) that motivate us in predictable ways (hence ability to measure political science)
Men and women equal in ability
Every person has equal right to pleasure and no pleasures are objectively better than others
Pleasure and pain preferences are same from childhood to adulthood
What factors does Bentham take into account when considering different pains and pleasures?
Intensity, duration, certainty of enjoyment, remoteness (how far down line will be experienced), fecundity (chance to produce more pleasure/pain), purity
In case of societal decisions also take into account how many people will be affected (extent)
How does Bentham think that communities should aggregate interests and decide on policies?
Add up all people for and against issue and decide. However must also take into account intensity (if pain of a minority group is extremely deep vs. moderate pleasure of majority, tilts in favor of minority)
Also takes into account interest of animals
Summarize Bentham's principles of utilitarianism
Nothing in itself is desirable except pleasure and removal of pain
One pleasure is as good as next, all pleasures are equal
Actions are right if they produce the greatest happiness
Humans self-interested but capable of benevolence
What do Bentham and Mill think about good life?
Maximize happiness of individual and society
What does Bentham think about political institutions?
Reorganize legal system (jails at time were bad and legal system was very unclear)
Private property good to extent that it produces happiness (would be open to communism if could show that it is better at producing happiness - pragmatic)
Liberty good because it allows people to pursue own pleasures but there are no natural rights, only those given by society
Political system should be democratic (developed this conclusion through inability of aristocrats to build his panopticon due to fact that they had to cater to minorities to get re-elected)
What modifications does Mill make to Bentham's ideas of utilitarianism?
Disagrees that all pleasures are equal, pushpin not as good as poetry (tends to favor intellectual needs, decides based on whether all or almost all people who experience two things prefer one)
Individuals change over course of life and pleasures are not constant from childhood to adulthood
Important for individuals to prioritize self-development and improve own faculties, lack of mental cultivation leads to unhappiness
Less comfortable with selfishness
How does Mill divide the development of civilization?
1. Barbaric (Homeric), very violent, irrational and overly religious
2. Traditional civilization (19th century India and China) where the political unit is highly centralized and stagnated, employs rule by violence and has a lazy populace
3. Modern civilization (sophisticated social structure, less rule by force, more focus on individuals that allows for progress and majority to self-develop)
What does Mill think about women?
First political philosopher to endorse female franchise, influenced by the self-development capability of his wife Harriet Taylor
Thinks women haven't been given the opportunity to show their true colors due to social obligations and this has led to the lack of prominent female intellectuals
Thinks that if women were allowed to self-develop, men would also benefit from smarter spouse and thus gain an additional avenue for self-development themselves
What additional reforms does Mill think that modern society should undertake?
Extend the franchise, curb social tyranny and make education widespread
Criminal justice reform to bring in proportionality between crime and punishment
Legal equality between men and women especially in regards to property rights (only wealthy women at time could afford prenups)
Favors more collective ownership of capital and means of production
What political reforms did Bentham's generation accomplish?
Limited power of sovereign, created franchise and broadened definition of sovereign past single ruler
What does Mill think about democracy?
Generally good as political participation allows self development by encouraging compassion, builds sense of community
Has some issues that stem from his reading of de Tocqueville (tyranny of majority, exaltation of equality that produces mediocre everyman rulers, people prone to choosing demagogues)
Why does Mill think that freedom of expression is important?
Any opinion expressed could be true
Any opinion expressed could be partially true and thus push us closer to truth
Individuals must be able to defend their opinions if they are to have validity
Established opinions must be continually challenged to stay alive and valuable
How would Mill reform the structure of government?
Bicameral, one made up of representatives and one with retired representatives to slow down the other chamber
Elections held under PR to encourage election of intellectuals, ballots should be transferable to other constituencies and smarter people should have more votes (both for same purpose)
What does Marx think about capitalism?
Wary of it, he is aware of its wealth producing ability but believes that it produces misery for workers
System that has capitalists and proletariat who are both driven by the false promise that hard work will lead to climb up social ladder
What does Marx think about human nature?
He is positive about it and thinks that humans can produce an incredible state that does not require coercion
Humans are sociable, rational, equal and highly expressive
Humans have physical needs (these drive history by forcing us to organize ourselves in different ways to satisfy them) that cause trouble
Describe Marx subject-object relationship
People (subjects) use things (objects) to satisfy needs, fine when using physical goods but complicated when money enters equation
Desire to accumulate money forces people to think of other people as objects to gain more money and forces mindset of exploitation and dehumanization. People turned to tools and creativity is stifled
How does Marx view religion?
Same way as he views money, thinks it is bad because people are forced to give up life and natural abilities in service of an abstraction
What does Marx think about good life?
Involves ability to express traits that are natural to the human condition
What does Marx think about the division of labor?
Creates more productivity but also more conflict by pitting classes against each other, wealthier classes are able to change rules of society to benefit them
Mental laborers such as priests, professors do not add true value to society and are only kept afloat on the exploitation of physical laborers while claiming the support of society (think of themselves as self-important)
What is Marx's false consciousness?
People build ideology to justify the exploitative institutions that exist in society, makes it hard to truly change society as people genuinely believe that exploitation is natural
Seen in religion and its promise of afterlife (obey and suffer) - similar attitude in capitalism where exploited are docile and think world is always this way
Why does Marx believe that revolution is inevitable under capitalism?
Promise of advancement and ownership of little bit of property keeps proletariat and petty-bourgeois going even as small group of people amass vast majority of wealth
Eventually the pressure to reduce costs in capitalism will lead to replacement of all workers by technology, both workers and capitalists trapped because no way out of this race to the bottom
Government cannot do anything as they pursue policies influenced by the false consciousness, eventually handful of people or companies will own all wealth and revolt happens where means of production seized for good of society
What are Marx's four stages of history?
1. Tribal/asiatic/primitive communist where people relatively equal but unable to produce enough goods, thus faced with perpetual famine and at mercy of nature
2. Ancient societies that deal with scarcity by using slavery, slowly replace communal property with private property
3. Feudal societies that use serfs and develop a large merchant class with increasing urbanization
4. Capitalism that is useful in developing technology needed for communism but will eventually collapse
(5. Communism to come)
What is Marx's vision of communism?
First involves period of socialism (dictatorship of proletariat) where bourgeois state is dissolved and production, capital, property, infrastructure become controlled by state. Not dangerous because proletariat is vast majority of people
Eventually leads to communism where there are no markets, money, division of labor, no exploitation, humans can choose any line of work to express themselves while having all needs satisfied
What are Marx's preconditions for communist revolution?
Severe inequality that is getting worse and technology advanced enough to self-sustain civilization
What are Rawls' criticisms of utilitarianism?
Its focus on maximizing happiness ignores the innate value of human beings and their natural rights
What is Rawls' original position?
Thought experiment where people do not know anything about their traits or standing in society and are asked to choose how society will be organized
What types of society are unjust for Rawls?
Basically all, a society like Plato's that is clearly divided by class is obviously unjust while modern liberal societies are also unjust because even though class technically does not determine outcome, wealth produces huge head start
Capitalism not good because invisible hand works in wrong way, welfare state better but not structured in way that best benefits worst-off
What does Rawls think about human nature?
People are fundamentally rational and equal when they are not aware of their traits
People have inherent moral value by virtue of being alive
What are Rawls' two principles of justice?
1. Entitlement to basic liberties
2. Fair equality of opportunity and difference principle
What liberties does Rawls believe humans are entitled to?
Substantive guarantee of political liberties
Formal guarantee of free religion, property rights, free movement and equal treatment under law (not substantive because eg. religions that would require large places of worship would have claim to state funding for building)
What are Rawls' fair equality of opportunity and difference principle?
FEO = large investment in education to equalize different starts in wealth, distribution of offices of employment equality among income bracks, public funding of healthcare to equalize birth defects, very high if not complete inheritance tax
Difference principle = capped income inequality allowed to extent that it benefits poor (people in jobs that help poor such as brain surgeons paid somewhat more because this job helps equalize opportunity for poor)
What does Rawls think about the good life?
No single conception, rather it involves giving people the opportunities and goods necessary to live their conception of the good life
What are the primary goods for Rawls?
Goods that are rational for everybody to desire under original position:
Basic rights and liberties, income and wealth, free choice among occupations, social basis of self-respect recognized by institutions (meaning that even if you are part of worst off, can recognize that society organized in way that is helping you)
What are the two famous criticisms of Rawls?
Bytes criticism that the place in world people are born also matters, theory of justice must be globalized and rich countries thus owe to poorer ones
Oaken's criticism that theory of justice does not account for fact that men usually head the family and women are thus also hindered from equality based on their sex
What does Aquanias think about human nature?
Goal is to get to a good afterlife, avoid hell and purgatory
Humans are puny and are not the highest non-God creatures in universe (angels)
All living things have souls, plants are vegetative, animals v + sensory, humans v + s + rational
God gives us the gifts of faith, social, political reasoning that allow us to get to good afterlife
Humans have free will and good conscience but have been corrupted by original sin that gives us passion and desire
Humans have inclinations to self-preserve, procreate, self-perfect, seek own good
What are the types of law for Aquinas?
Eternal (cannot be seen, run universe)
Divine (God's revelations as seen in Bible)
Natural (eternal laws that are accessible such as do not murder)
Human/positive law (chosen by humans and passed in government, can be good or bad)
What does Aquinas think about political institutions?
Government should be mixed, should belong to either whole people or one person acting in name of all people
Church and state should be separate (two swords theory where state controls civil authority and Church is independent to guide). Church has priority over government
What does Aquinas think about tyrants?
Not obliged to follow them as they are rebels who undermine institutions. However revolution cannot be undertaken casually and must be headed by someone with existing legitimacy who holds political office
What does Augustine think about human nature?
Original sin is so strong that 90% of all humans are damned
Humans attracted to vain glory (praise) that dangerously inflates inner pride
Only a few people can be saved through God, called the elect and are predestined