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Flashcards in Final Deck (74):
1

What do you call the exterior structures of the woman?

Vulva

2

What is the union of a sperm nucleus and an ovum nucleus resulting in the formation of a zygote?

Fertilization

3

What is the male homologue of the female clitoris?

Penis

4

What causes penile erection?

Parasympathetic neurons releasing nitric oxide, which increase blood flow to the penis

5

When does menustration usually occur?

When blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

6

Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?

LH (Luteinizing Hormone)

7

What implants into the endometrium 6-7 days after ovulation?

blastocyst

8

What is a shunt to bypass the fetal liver?

Ductus Venosus

9

What makes a fetal heart different from an adult heart?

It has a foramen ovale that helps in bypassing the lungs

10

What is the usual site of fertilization?

Uterine tube/ Fallopian tube

11

Lack of this causes the endometrium to slough off

Progesterone

12

What is the embryo after 8 weeks?

Fetus

13

What is the organ that delivers nutrients to and disposes of waste for the uterus?

Placenta

14

Which two hormones are essential to initiate labor in humans?

Oxytocin and Prostaglandins

15

Which hormone is responsible for milk production?

Prolactin

16

Which hormone is responsible for milk ejection?

Oxytocin

17

What are the organs of the urinary system?

Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

18

What sits on top of kidneys?

Adrenal gland

19

Where do blood vessels enter and leave the kidney?

Renal Hilum

20

What are the functional units of the kidney?

Nephrons

21

What are the nephrons called in the cortex?

Cortical Nephrons

22

What are nephrons called in both the cortex and medulla?

Juxtamedullary nephron

23

What artery leads blood into the kidney?

Renal artery

24

What are the parts of a nephron

Glomerular (Bowman's) Capsule
Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Loop of Henle (LOH)
Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Collecting duct

25

How can you tell the difference between the ascending and descending LOH?

Ascending is thick

Descending is thin

26

What is the main job of the LOH

Water reabsorption

27

What is the ascending LOH permeable to?

NaCL (ions)

28

What is the descending LOH permeable to?

Water

29

What cells serve as baroreceptors sensitive to blood presure within the arteriole?

Granular Cells

30

What cells monitor and respond to changes in the osmolarity of the filtrate in the tubule?

Macula Densa cells

31

What cells can contract and act as phagocytes?

Mesangial cells

32

What are the steps of urine filtration

1. Filtration
2. Reabsorption
3. Secretion

33

What force drives filtration at the glomerulus?

HPg

34

What is the blood pressure in the glomerulus?

60 mmhg

35

What two pressures oppose filtration and what are their values?

HPc = 18 mmHg

OPg = 32 mmHg

36

What is the normal net filtration pressure?

10 mmHg

37

What are the layers of the ureters?

1. Transitional epithelial mucosa
2. Muscularis (smooth muscle)
3. Adventitia (Fibrous connective tissue)

38

How does urine move though the ureters?

Peristalsis

39

What triggers urinary reflex?

Stretching of the bladder

40

What is urination called?

micturition

41

What is the organ that removes waste?

Kidneys

42

What organ stores urine?

Urinary bladder

43

What is the outside opening for urine?

Urethra

44

What is the kidney's urine-producing unit?

Nephron

45

What are the capillaries around nephorons?

Peritubular Capillaries

46

What is the tube from the kidney to the bladder?

Ureters

47

What surronds the kidney?

Renal Capsule

48

What tissue is the renal capsule made of?

Dense irregular connective tissue

49

What is the fatty tissue surrounding the renal capsule?

Adipose capsule

50

What anchors the kidneys?

Renal fascia

51

What tissue is the renal fascia made of?

Dense irregular connective tissue

52

What does a failing blood pH because of an excess of ketones indicate?

Metabloic acidosis

53

How much blood is filtered every day?

180L

54

What is the effect of angiotensin II on the GFR?

It lowers GFR

55

What is the most common cause of acid-base imbalance?

Respiratory acidosis

56

Why does urine give off a strong smell over time?

The bacteria begin to metabloze urea

57

What is involved with concentrating urine?

Juxamedullary nephrons

58

What is involved with filtrate productions?

Cortical nephrons

59

What converts ammonia into urea?

The liver

60

What does the liver convert ammonia to?

Urea

61

Why does the liver convert ammonia to urea?

Ammonia is toxic

62

What percent of blood is always in the kidneys?

20%

63

What are chemical buffers?

Bicarbonate
Phosphate
Protein

64

What are phsiological buffers?

Respiratory & Renal Mechanism

65

What does a buffer do?

Prevents drastic changes in pH

66

Where is phosphate most important?

Intracellular fluid

67

Where is bicarbonate most important?

Extracellular Fluid

68

What is the body's defense against pH shift?

1. Chemical buffer system
2. Physiological Buffer

69

What tissue is the PCT made of?

Simple cuboidal
Microvilli

70

What tissue is the LOH made of?

Simple Squamos

71

Where are nephron loops located?

Renal pyramid

72

Why are amino acids unique?

They have nitrogen in their amine groups

73

What do your kidneys influence to maintain homeostasis?

RBC production
Blood pressure

74

What do your kidneys regulate to maintain homeostasis?

Water volume
pH levels
Salt concentration