Flashcards in Final Deck (74):
What do you call the exterior structures of the woman?
What is the union of a sperm nucleus and an ovum nucleus resulting in the formation of a zygote?
What is the male homologue of the female clitoris?
What causes penile erection?
Parasympathetic neurons releasing nitric oxide, which increase blood flow to the penis
When does menustration usually occur?
When blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
What implants into the endometrium 6-7 days after ovulation?
What is a shunt to bypass the fetal liver?
What makes a fetal heart different from an adult heart?
It has a foramen ovale that helps in bypassing the lungs
What is the usual site of fertilization?
Uterine tube/ Fallopian tube
Lack of this causes the endometrium to slough off
What is the embryo after 8 weeks?
What is the organ that delivers nutrients to and disposes of waste for the uterus?
Which two hormones are essential to initiate labor in humans?
Oxytocin and Prostaglandins
Which hormone is responsible for milk production?
Which hormone is responsible for milk ejection?
What are the organs of the urinary system?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
What sits on top of kidneys?
Where do blood vessels enter and leave the kidney?
What are the functional units of the kidney?
What are the nephrons called in the cortex?
What are nephrons called in both the cortex and medulla?
What artery leads blood into the kidney?
What are the parts of a nephron
Glomerular (Bowman's) Capsule
Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Loop of Henle (LOH)
Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
How can you tell the difference between the ascending and descending LOH?
Ascending is thick
Descending is thin
What is the main job of the LOH
What is the ascending LOH permeable to?
What is the descending LOH permeable to?
What cells serve as baroreceptors sensitive to blood presure within the arteriole?
What cells monitor and respond to changes in the osmolarity of the filtrate in the tubule?
Macula Densa cells
What cells can contract and act as phagocytes?
What are the steps of urine filtration
What force drives filtration at the glomerulus?
What is the blood pressure in the glomerulus?
What two pressures oppose filtration and what are their values?
HPc = 18 mmHg
OPg = 32 mmHg
What is the normal net filtration pressure?
What are the layers of the ureters?
1. Transitional epithelial mucosa
2. Muscularis (smooth muscle)
3. Adventitia (Fibrous connective tissue)
How does urine move though the ureters?
What triggers urinary reflex?
Stretching of the bladder
What is urination called?
What is the organ that removes waste?
What organ stores urine?
What is the outside opening for urine?
What is the kidney's urine-producing unit?
What are the capillaries around nephorons?
What is the tube from the kidney to the bladder?
What surronds the kidney?
What tissue is the renal capsule made of?
Dense irregular connective tissue
What is the fatty tissue surrounding the renal capsule?
What anchors the kidneys?
What tissue is the renal fascia made of?
Dense irregular connective tissue
What does a failing blood pH because of an excess of ketones indicate?
How much blood is filtered every day?
What is the effect of angiotensin II on the GFR?
It lowers GFR
What is the most common cause of acid-base imbalance?
Why does urine give off a strong smell over time?
The bacteria begin to metabloze urea
What is involved with concentrating urine?
What is involved with filtrate productions?
What converts ammonia into urea?
What does the liver convert ammonia to?
Why does the liver convert ammonia to urea?
Ammonia is toxic
What percent of blood is always in the kidneys?
What are chemical buffers?
What are phsiological buffers?
Respiratory & Renal Mechanism
What does a buffer do?
Prevents drastic changes in pH
Where is phosphate most important?
Where is bicarbonate most important?
What is the body's defense against pH shift?
1. Chemical buffer system
2. Physiological Buffer
What tissue is the PCT made of?
What tissue is the LOH made of?
Where are nephron loops located?
Why are amino acids unique?
They have nitrogen in their amine groups
What do your kidneys influence to maintain homeostasis?