final ch. 1-14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in final ch. 1-14 Deck (50):
1

what is the most objective method for acquiring knowledge?

the scientific method; involving: observation, hypothesis, testing, theorizing, replication

2

which research method can establish cause-effect relationships?

experiments

3

independent variable

manipulated

4

dependent variable

measured

5

neurons

a specialized cell that conduct impulses through the nervous system

6

hippocampus

controls behaviors; a structure in the minbic system that plays a central role in the storage of new memories, the response to new or unexpected stimuli, and navigational ability

7

amygdala

involved with emotions and aggressive behavior; a structure in the limbic system that plays an important role in emotions, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli

8

what are the receptor cells for vision?

rods and cones

9

rods

for low illumination levels (x20 rods than cones) light-sensitive rejector cells in the retina that allows the eye to respond to as few as five photons of light

10

cones

for bright light, color, details (6 million) the light-sensitive receptor in the retina that enable humans to see color and find detail in adequate light nut not function in very dim lighting

11

sensation

bringing information through the senses; the process through which the senses pick up visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli and transmit to the brain

12

perception

actively organizing and interpreting that information; the process by which the brain actively organizes and interprets sensory information

13

examples of "altered states of consciousness"

change in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, or drugs

14

what is alcohol classified as?

in high doses depressed brain activity (disinhibition)

15

physical dependence

body's tolerance; a compulsive pattern of drug use in which the user developed a drug tolerance coupled with unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug use is discontinued

16

psychological dependence

craving; or irritable urge for a drug's pleasurable efffects

17

Watson & Rayner's "Little Albert and the White Rat" experiment an generalization

• Conducted experiment to prove fear could classically condition.Little albert was a was a healthy and emotionally stable 11 month old infant.When tested her showed no fear except of loud noise. Rayner presented Albert with a white rat, when he reached for a the white rat they would create a loud noise. Continuing the processes numerous times Albert began to cry at the sight of the white rat

18

punishment

the removal of pleasant stimuli or the application of an unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a response

19

negative reinforcement

negative, taking away; the termination of an unpleasant condition after a response which increases the probability that the response will be repeated

20

encoding

changing form; transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory

21

storage

holding information; the process of keeping/maintaining information that has been stored in memory

22

retrieval

recovering memory; the process of brining to mind information that has been stored in memory

23

massed practice

involves learning a large amount of material over a short period of time with only short intervals in-between

24

distrbuted practice

more effective; where periods of learning are separated by periods of lengthy periods of rest

25

what is the best type of reseal of college material?

elaborative rehearsal for studying complex material

26

functional fixedness

can't see new uses for a familiar object; the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of tendency to view objects only terms of their costmary function

27

heuristic

a rule of thumb that is derived from experience and used in decision making and problem solving, even though there is no guarantee of its accuracy or usefulness

28

reliability

same score each time taken; the ability of a test to yield nearly the same score when the same people are tested and then retested on the same test or an alternative form of the test

29

validity

measure what it purports to; the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure

30

attachment

the strong affectionate bond a child forms with the mother or caregiver; emotional connection between individuals

31

infants senses at birth

experience the world through senses, actions, and body movement s

32

Harlow's study of attachment

Harlow constructed two surrogate monkeys, one was made of wire-mesh and the other made out of cloth.New born monkeys were placed into cages and had equal access to both "mothers". The infant monkey developed a strong attachment with the cloth mother and little to none with the wire monkey. Found that it was contact comfort- the comfort supplied by bodily contact- rather than nourishment that formed the attachment between the infants and mother

33

language overregularization

The act of inappropriately applying the grammatical rules for forming plurals and past tense to irregular nouns and verbs . Children that use the words "went" "came" and "did" incorrectly apply the rule for past tenses and begin to say "goed" "comed" and "doed"
 

34

motivation

all the processes that initiate, direct, and sustain behavior

35

three components of motivation

1. Activation- take the first steps required to achieve your goal
2. Persistence- the faithful and continued effort put forth in working towards your goal
3. Intensity- focused energy and attention applied in order to achieve goal

36

extrinsic

the desire to behave in a certain way in order to gain some external reward or avoid some undesirable consequences

37

intrinsic

the desire to behave in a certain way because it is enjoyable or satisfying in and of itself

38

low vs. high need for achievement

The need to accomplish something difficult and to preform at a high standard of excellence
People with a high ach to pursue goals that are challenging yet attainable through hard work, ability, determination, and persistence
Goals that are low (too easy) offer no challenge and hold low interest because success would not be rewarding

39

hassles

irritating demands that occur daily and may cause more stress than major life changes do

40

what type of STDs can be treated with antibiotics

bacterial: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis

41

three levels of awareness according to the psychoanalytic theroy

conscious, preconscious, unconscious

42

conscious

the thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment

43

preconscious

the thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the movement but may easily be brought to consciousness

44

unconscious

the primary motivating force of human behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious

45

how people high in self-efficacy behave

The perception a person has of his/her ability to preform competently whatever is attempted
Approach new situations confidently, set high goals, and persist in their efforts because they believe success is likely

46

how people with internal locus of control behave

Explains how people account for what happens in their lives- either seeing themselves as primarily in control of their behaviors and its consequences or perceiving what happens to them to be in the hands of fate, luck, or chance

47

MMP1-2

The most extensively researched and widely used personality test, which is used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders; revised as MMPI

48

why first impressions are so lasting

Primacy effects- the tendency for an overall impression of another to be influenced more by the first information that s received about that person than by the information that comes after

49

whether similarity is basis for attraction

Proximity-psychical or geological closeness, a major influence on attraction
Matching hypothesis- the notion that the people tend to have lovers or spouses who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness and other assets

50

social loafing and culture

The tendency to put forth less effort when working with other on a common task than when working alone
• Apparent in all cultures
• More common in western cultures (US)