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Flashcards in Final - Definitions Deck (203):
1

Pseudoparenchymatous

Filamentous 3D matrix mass of cells in which individual filaments are difficult to distinguish

2

Uniseriate vs Multiseriate

Filamentous (thread-like) usually composed of single rows of cells (uniseriate) and sometimes several rows (multiseriate)

3

Parenchymatous

Mass of cells produced by division in three planes, forming solid axes, blades or complex thalli with specialized regions

4

Holdfast

-Parts of the plants that resemble roots but not true roots, can wrap around rocks ad other plants, anchors the plant
-Is the modified basal region for substratum attachment

5

Stalk / Stipe

Stem-like region of thallus

6

Blade / Frond

-Is deciduous, being shed each year
-Like the leaves in higher plants

7

Pneumatocyst=Air bladders=Floats

-Like a beach ball, filled with air, holds the plant at the surface of the water
-An expanded area of thallus containing gases for buoyancy

8

Diffuse

-thallus growth
-new cells produced throughout the thallus

9

Meristematic and Meristem

new cells produced in specialized area called meristem (cells that are rapidly dividing)

10

4 types of meristems

1. Apical=at ends/tips of branches
2. Intercalary=within branches; may be transitional between fronds and stipe
3. Trichothallic=at base of terminal hair (filament)
4. Meristodermal=region located on thallus surface (increases girth)

11

Medulla

in the middle, most of the transport cells are found here

12

Cortex

around the medulla

13

Meristoderm

on the exterior of the stipe, increase diameter of the stem

14

Algin / Alginate / Alginic Acid

-sugar that retains or absorbs water and forms a viscous material
-thickeness varies between species
-outer, slimy, amorphous
-part of the cell wall in brown algae
-found in our cosmetics, absorb 300X their weight in water, used as a thickening agent
-A colloid stabilizer, gelling agent in a wide variety of foods, beverages, textiles, cosmetics
-Algin in pharmaceuticals regulate rate at which they are released into bloodstream
-Moisture retainer in loose, sandy soil
-Slow release of trace elements (organic fertilizer)
-In beer, the foam is maintained a little longer by alginate

15

Cell Wall

-helps protect against desiccation (live in variable environment so this material is important)
-temperature change and salinity
-flexibility to thallus
-ion exchange
-protection against pounding surf

16

Number of chloroplast membranes vs endosymbiosis

2 membrane chloroplasts = primary endosymbiosis
4 membrane chloroplasts = secondary endosymbiosis

17

Lamellae

Thylakoids stacked in threes

18

Physodes

-Vesicles in cytoplasm associated with chloroplast
-Contain colourless, highly refractive polyphenolic compounds such as tannins
-Are colourless, highly absorptive of the UV light to protect the cell, live in shallow water where ultra-violet light is more abundant at the surface compared to going deeper in the water

19

Tannins

-held in physodes (vesicles)
-readily oxidized in air, resulting in formation of brown or black pigment, phycophaein, giving many dried brown algae a characteristic black colour
-Absorb UV light and protect the thallus from UV light damage
-Inhibit growth of epiphytes (something growing on a plant, which can shade the brown algae by releasing chemical to reduce the completion for light)
-Discourage herbivores due to astringency
-Play a role in fertilization by blocking polyspermy (more than one sperm unites with the egg)

20

Plasmodesmata

adjacent cells share common end wall which enable intercellular connection

21

Trumpet Cells

-Long chains of trumpet cells, with holes in them to allow flow in between cells
-In stipes of kelp
-Trumpet cells is very similar to phloem seen in vascular plants
-Resemble sieve plates in vascular plants

22

Diplohaplontic lifecycle

-alternation of generations with 2N sporophyte and N gametophyte
-switches between haploid and diploid

23

Isomorphic generations

Similar N and 2N stages where sporophyte and gametophyte are similar in structure and general appearance

24

Heteromorphic generations

Dissimilar N and 2N stages where sporophyte is more complex structurally (parenchymatous or pseudoparenchymatous) and gametophyte is filaments

25

Heterotrichous

Different filaments

26

Plurilocular sporangia vs Unilocular sporangia vs Plurilocular gametangia (Brown Algae - Ectocarpus)

Plurilocular sporangia: have multiseriate region consisting of large number of smaller cells, each cell develops into asexual zoospore (2N) that produces new sporophyte, dominate at warmer temperatures

Unilocular sporangia: are enlarged cells where meiosis occurs followed by several mitosis divisions, releases 32 to 64 N spores, each giving rise to a gametophyte, dominate at cooler temperatures

Plurilocular gametangia: resemble plurilocular sporangia, gametes (N) are isogamous with laterally inserted flagella, males and females similar in appearance but functionally distinct, as females settle to bottom and secrete chemical called ectocarpene which attracts males, after gamete fusion, the zygote develops without a period of dormancy into new sporophyte (2N)

27

Pheromones

Chemicals involved to ensure sexual reproduction, usually attracts the male gametes to the female.

28

Heteromorphic alternation of generations

Sporophyte is usually very large, the haploid gametophyte is usually microscopic

29

Dioecious gametophytes

-bear oogonia (female) and antheridia (male)
-Oogonium produces one egg that remains attached and antheridium produces one sperm
-Egg secretes pheromone (lamoxirene) that stimulates antheridia to release sperm that swim to egg

30

Cryptostomates

-Small cavities scattered over surface, appearing as small bumps, that aid in nutrient uptake
-Order Fucales (brown algae)

31

Receptacles

-Forms specialized reproductive regions called receptacles at ends of branches
-Receptacles contain conceptacles
-Can be monoecious (one gamete) or dioecious (two gametes) conceptacles
-Branches inside conceptacles produce gametangia: oogonia (larger, female) and antheridia (smaller, male)
-Gametes released in packets through conceptacle opening into surrounding seawater during calm periods for maximum fertilization

32

Intertidal habitat

-Fucales (brown algae) provide intertidal habitat by maintaining well-illuminated, moist environment under fronds for epiphytes and sessile invertebrates
-Use chemicals to prevent drying out

33

What is the use for kelp (brown algae)?

-Kelp eaten as vegetable, providing salts, vitamins, trace elements
-Kelp harvested for ash (Na, K) for industry and used as fertilizer

34

What is the use of iodine?

Iodine reacts with starch (a storage product) and makes it turn black.

35

Colonial

Aggregation of cells, are nonmotile and are embedded in common sheath of mucilage

36

Parietal

Around the cell (the periphery)

37

Pyrenoids

where carbon fixation takes place in the chloroplast

38

Which reproductive stages are flagellated?

Zoospores and gametes

39

Heterokontous reproductives stages (tinsel and whiplash)

-Long anterior tinsel flagellum with tripartite hairs (mastigonemes) and a shorter posteriorly-directed whiplash flagellum inserted in anterior region of cell
-A swelling associated with the shorter and smoother flagellum have a photoreceptor and eyespot (in chloroplast)

40

Asexual reproduction

-Vegetative cell division (fragmentation)
-Formation of zoospores (motile), aplanspores (nonmotile), or cysts

41

Endogenous vs Exogenous

Endogenous: cyst formed inside the cell
Exogenous: cyst formed outside the cell

42

Cryptomonad

• Monad: small uniflagellates
• Crypto: hidden; reflect uncertain phylogeny
Cryptomonad: don’t understand fully on how they evolved

43

Sessile

Nonmotile

44

Bi-lobed

One lobe of connected to another lobe to form the chloroplast

45

Periplast

-Periplast goes around as a modified plasma membrane
-Proteinaceous plates associated with inner side of the cell membrane, separated by ejectosomes

46

Ejectosomes

-Little membrane bound structure from periplast that is ejected
-Are projectiles
-Long tapered ribbon, tightly spiralled and enclosed in single membrane
-Discharged explosively when cell is disturbed, like a party favour
-Thought to serve as defence or escape mechanism

47

Nucleomorph

-intermediary between the chloroplast and nucleus, looks like a nucleus (what it may have been before)
-provides huge proof of secondary endosymbiosis, has remains of nucleus of the original cell that was engulfed
-has chromosomes (3 pairs which code for the proteins of the chloroplast, NOT in nucleus but the information to make chloroplasts is found in the nucleomorph)

48

Kleptoplastidity

-to steal plastids
-chloroplast a little more autonomous than the other things in the cell
-Semi-autonomous chloroplast, not quit able to live on its own, but much more independent than other organisms

49

Auxotrophic

requiring such organic as vitamin B12 to achieve maximum growth rate

50

Mixotrophic

Capable of either heterotrophy or autotrophy based on whichever is most favourable.

51

How do some algae withstand adverse conditions or deter grazers?

Produce cysts and palmelloid stages

52

Phytoplankton

Free-floating

53

Dinoflagellates

Dino=whirling flagellates or corkscrew due to their means of motility

54

Heterodynamic

Two flagellae that don’t move one the same direction

55

Theca

-Modified cell membrane
-“Covering” or “coat”
-Have small membrane-bound vesicles that surround the interior of the membrane, so don’t protect them at all
-Function of the theca may help with floatation and surface area
-In Dinoflagellates, have thecal plates under the membrane, NOT armour
-Fewer the number of plates, the thicker and more robust they are (varies with species)
-Plates are joined by sutures

56

Mesokaryotic nucleus

-“Middle nucleus”
-Intermediate stage between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
-Has membrane-bound organelles and chloroplasts
-Doesn’t expand its chromosomes during interphase, remain condensed through the entire cell cycle and rod-shaped
-No histone proteins in chromosomes
-Nuclear membrane persists

57

Trichocyst

-A projectile organelle to deter predators
-Not at all a reproduction structure!
-At the suture lines
-In Dinoflagellates

58

Cingulum and Sulcus

Cingulum (wraps around the cell) and sulcus (runs down the cell in one direction) each have a flagellum

59

Epicone vs Hypocone vs Apical vs Singular vs Pericingular

Epicone: Top part without sulcus
Hypocone: With sulcus
Apical plates=at top of epicone
Singular plates=along the Cingulum
Pericingular =in between the apical plates and Singular plates

60

Spines

increase surface area and hydrodynamic drag

61

Pantonematic vs Acronematic

Pantonematic: tinsel or hairy flagellum
Acronematic: smooth or whiplash flagellum

62

Name the four types of eyespots.

1. Simplest type: collection of lipid globules lying freely in cytoplasm
2. Row of small globules within chloroplast
3. Two rows of lipid globules surrounded by triple membrane in cell periphery
4. Most complex eye or ocellus (lens and pigment cup); rare

63

Lamellae

Three stacked thylakoids in chloroplast

64

Pyrenoid

where carbon fixation takes place in the chloroplast

65

What happens when iodine reacts with starch?

turns black

66

Peridinin

-only algal group that contains this unique xanthophyll pigment are the Dinoflagellates
-an accessory pigment
-gives them a colour other than green
-a modified phycoerithrin

67

Heterotrophic

need organic material, can't synthesize themselves

68

Auxotrophic

-must be provided with organic matter
-require vitamin B12

69

Phagotrophic

Solid particles ingested into food vesicles where they are broken down and absorbed into cytoplasm

70

What is a clue of an algae's evolution?

what pigments they contain

71

Haplontic lifecycle

most of the lifecycle is haploid except for the zygote stage which is diploid

72

Why are cysts sometimes produced?

-for adverse environmental conditions like low food quantities (live in sediment for a long time) or may also just be a normal part of the lifecycle (amoeboid stage and become saprophytic, eating organic matter in the sediments)

73

Sporopollenin

-thin and amorphous wall that thickens during cyst formation (replaces theca of dinoflagellates)
-material produced by spores
-extremely robust
-in pollen that has survived thousands of years
-are armored due to outer layer

74

Planozygote vs Hypnozygote

Planozygote: flagellated zygote
Hypnozygote: non-flagellated zygote (resting cyst), cell contents condense and thick walls form, forming this dormant stage

75

Anisogamous gametes

female larger, male smaller

76

How are Dinoflagellates classified?

• Peridiniales=presence of theca, robust
Gymnodiniales=absence of theca

77

Why are Dinoflagellates called speed demons?

fastest in algae=speeds up to 500 um/sec=1.8m/h

78

Saprophytic

organisms that live off dead organisms, dead organic matter

79

Parasites

live inside the host and may kill it

80

Ichthyotoxin

-toxin that targets fish
-fish had necropsy of their tissue (breaking down) and killed them

81

How is a symbiosis formed between the corals and the dinoflagellates?

○ In corals, alga provides coral with oxygen, waste removal and carbohydrates, since about 60% of the carbon fixed by the alga is released into the surrounding medium and used by coral
○ Corals are like living rocks, structural material, are animals that feed on organisms swimming by them
○ Dinoflagellates help on the calcification of the matrix of corals
○ That’s why they live in shallow water to receive light for the dinoflagellates that help them with the calcification
○Dinoflagellates get the nutrients from the surrounding host

82

Calcium carbonate

deposited due to algal photosynthesis assists in coral calcification; since this only occurs in light, restricts depth to which corals can occur

83

Red tides

○ Caused by Dinoflagellates
○ Blooms occasionally lead to death of aquatic animals when they consume oxygen during collapse or due to toxin production
○ Upside: it is thought oceanic dinoflagellate blooms produced much of the world’s petroleum deposits
○ Water turning to blood in the Bible due to these red tides, not an act of God

84

Why do some dinoflagellates produce a bioluminescent response?

○ Bioluminescent response where luciferin a chemical that produces light (flames from hell) and reacts with ATP = luciferase (an enzyme that mediates the reaction between ATP and luciferin)
○ Chemicals mix when propeller of the boat passes through or reaction to being startled (fish are attracted the the predator eating the dinoflagellate and eats them instead)
○Alarm to startle the burglar (burglar alarm hypothesis) and attract your neighbours or startle the grazers (startle hypothesis)

85

Saxitoxin

-Dinoflagellate endotoxin
-50 times more potent than curare to birds and mammals but nontoxic to shellfish that are its primary consumer
-function unknown, but may be anti-predator mechanism (does not benefit the individual that has been eaten but may benefit the others that may survive)
-functions as a neurotoxin
-PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) : shellfish eat them are not affected, but we are when we eat them

86

Endotoxin

produced within cell and not released to environment until cell is crushed or destroyed

87

Neurotoxin

toxin that affects the nervous system

88

Paraflagellar rod

-electron dense area
-rigid
-gives the flagella a unique movement
-found in Euglenophyta
-more jerky movement, less flexible
-Euglnoid motion

89

Euglenoid motion

-twisting of the pellicle to propel the cell forward

90

Euglenids and light

-Euglenoid are positively phototactic at low light, negatively phototactic at high light (When high levels of light that could damage the photosystems)

91

Pellicle

○ Proteinaceous strips beneath plasma membrane
○ Helically twisted with ridges and grooves
○ Some have flexible pellicle to allow for Euglenoid motion (others have a rigid pellicle)
○ Muciferous bodies with mucilage under pellicle strips
○ Discharge mucilage to exterior

92

Muciferous bodies

-excrete mucilage to lubricate the membrane or pellicle when it twists = Euglenoid motion

93

Photolithotrophic

use if light and inorganic material

94

Paramylon

-a storage product of Euglenophyta
-chemically similar to laminarin
-does not respond to iodine

95

Epipelon vs Epiphyton vs Epizoon

Epipelon=sediment
Epiphyton=plants
Epizoon=zooplankton
*all benthic

96

Endozoic

living inside animals like hydra or drangonfly nymphs

97

Phycoerythrin

-gives the red colour pigment
-water soluble
-in Rhodophyta
-allows the organism to have an advantage where chlorophyll can't absorb green light

98

Pit plugs / Pit connections

-proteinaceous like higher plants
-not a pit or connection
-between adjacent cells
-incomplete extension of the cell wall is covered by this
-function in intercellular transport (when plugs are dislodged)

99

Primary pit connection vs Secondary pit connection

1. Primary pit connection:
-when one cell divide it forms between the two cells
-gap left behind by incomplete division and ER condenses in gap forming plug
2. Secondary pit connection:
-two closely related species or cells where the filament drills its way into the cell (parasitic method to get into its host cell)
-Formed when two cells fuse (non-sister cells) because cell walls are soft

100

Cell wall

○ Fibrous portion of cellulose provides strength
○ Cellulose rather soft, not rigid, compared to other algae
○ Embedded in amorphous matrix of mucilage (agars and carrageenans) that is 70% of dry weight

101

Cell wall of red algae vs brown algae

○ Brown algae have rigid walls (two layers of cellulose, fibrillation network and an outer layer of alginate that allows the ability to resist drying out)

○Red algae live in same environments but adapted same strategy to survive dry environments, have cellulose, agar and carrageenan (chemicals formed by red algae that have similar roles as the alginate, also used in cosmetics, can hold lots of water); walls are must less rigid, so smaller due to less rigidity

102

Primary endosymbiosis vs Secondary endosymbiosis

Primary = 2 membranes of chloroplast
Secondary = 3 or 4 membranes of chloroplast

103

Phycobilins

-allows for chromatic adaptation where photosynthetic organisms can modify them to adapt to the amount of light they are receiving
-take up a wider range of wavelengths of light from the spectrum
-allow for chromatic adaptation

104

Which visible light goes through water the easiest?

-blue and green go through easiest (why the colour of water is blue)
-red and green not as easily

105

Pseudoparenchymatous

3D tissue unable to identify a single filament

106

Chromatic adaptation and phycobilins

-phycobilins allow for chromatic adaption of red algae
-they can grow at greater depths than other algae because blue and green light penetrate farthest into water

107

How do you get a multinucleate organism?

-repeated mitosis without cytokinesis

108

Adelphoparasites vs Alloparasites

Adelphoparasites: closely related to hosts (90%)
Alloparasites: not closely related to hosts

109

How do parasites connect to hosts?

-via secondary pit connections, transferring its nucleus to host, causing host cell to enlarge and increase in cytoplasmic content
-products of photosynthesis are transferred from host to parasite

110

Oogamous

male and female non-flagellate, two very different gametes

111

Monoecious

both male and female structures are on the same gametophyte

112

Why triphasic reproduction?

-because male gametes are nonmotile, it is compensation for lack of motility
-enhance reproductive fecundity

113

What is mucilage (from the cell wall with agar and carrageenan) used for?

-Thickeners and stabilizers in food (ice cream, pudding)
-Pharmaceuticals
-Microbiological growth medium

114

Why are green algae green?

-relative absence of accessory pigments for chlorophyll colour are unmasked

115

Endemic

things found only in specific locations

116

Pseudograna

-pancake stacks of thylakoids with some interconnection between grana
*resembles higher vascular plants
-areas stacked in columns by partial overlap of thylakoids

117

Starch

-is primary reserve, formed inside the chloroplast or inside vesicles or other places in the cell

118

Colony

loose aggregations of cells held together by mucilage or intercellular connections

119

Coenobium

a type of colony where the number of cells is fixed

120

Parietal chloroplast

around the cell

121

Conjugation

-sexual reproduction
-tube forms between two filaments and the contents move from one cell into another, to form the zygote

122

Glycoproteins

mixture of carbohydrates and proteins

123

Palmelloid

-when motile forms lose their flagella during certain phases of the lifecycle and become this

124

Phototactic movement and the flagella

-measures light at different time intervals as cell changes its position relative to light
-photorecpetor of the eyespot contains chromophore (coloured substance)

125

Photoheterotrophic

-use organic carbon only when light available and when limited by dissolved inorganic carbon supply
-require light to photosynthesize but use organic carbon to break into inorganic form then use photosynthesis (don’t use carbon dioxide as their main source of carbon)

126

Anisogamy

-during conjugation (sexual reproduction), one cell moves towards the other through the tube

127

What are the two types of cytokinesis?

1) phycoplast
2) phragmoplast

128

Phycoplast

-"algae made"
-more primitive
-two daughter nuclei close together
-after mitosis division, spindle fibres disappear and are replaced by more microtubules perpendicular to plane of division
-new cell wall forms across microtubules by furrowing (ingrowth of cell membrane) or cell-plate formation (outward growth from centre)

129

Phragmoplast

-"wall made"
-most advanced
-after mitosis division, two daughter nuclei held far apart by persistent spindle fibres perpendicular to plane of division
-Golgi vesicles aggregate on spindle fibres and form new cell plate via furrowing or cell plate

130

Which are the three most common algae in Manitoba?

Diatoms, Green Algae and Cyanobacteria

131

High nutrient waters

nitrogen and phosphorous

132

Eleutheroschisis

daughter cells synthesize their own cell wall (don't use parent cell wall)

133

In the 1900s, what did Blackman hypothesize?

-hypothesized evolution of Volvocales was analogous to evolutionary progression in development of multicellular, terrestrial plants
○ Trends
§ Increase in colony size and number of cells
§ Change in morphology from flat plane to hollow sphere
§ Increase in reproductive specialization
§ Change from isogamous to oogamous sexual reproduction

134

Polarity

anterior-posterior gradation in cell size, eyespots (larger in anterior), coordinated directional swimming and formation of specialized cells

135

Agglutination

-cells clump together
-Flagella used to ensure chemical compatibility, and if two cells are compatible, then the flagellae will agglutinate to bring the two vegetative cells together (make sexual reproduction easier)

136

Agglutinins

gamete compatibility recognition

137

Quadriflagellate planozygote

motile zygote with 4 flagellae

138

What is the role of sexual reproduction?

-response to adverse conditions, not for genetic variability
-allows to create specialized structures to reproduce

139

When does a palmelloid stage usually develop?

• If no water present, palmelloid stage develops; cells develop flagella when water returns

140

Gonidium, gonidia

-a large mass of cells
-only the gonidia reproduce
-specialized reproductive cell during sexual reproduction

141

Plakea

-inverted colonies
-Start off with flagella on the interior of the colony during both sexual and asexual reproduction, but a mechanism causes all the cells to invert so now flagellae or on the outside of the colony

142

Due to lack of motility, flagella, eyespot and contractile vacuoles, how do algae slow down their sinking?

-increase surface area and drag with spines, elongated shapes, plate-like or stellate colonies, sculpting outside the cell gives it buoyancy

143

Parthenogenesis

doesn't involve the production of a zygote, the gamete forms an azygospore

144

Desmoschisis

-cell wall of daughter cells is in part composed of the parental wall (recycling of parental wall)

145

Reticulate

net-like shaped

146

Stephanokont

ring or flagella near anterior end

147

Nannadrous vs Macrandrous

nannadrous: dwarf male filaments macrandrous: large male filaments

148

Why is the Oedogonium called the tent-top camper?

-Cell wall ruptures and allows the cell to expand and recreates a new cell wall
-Scars remain from this cell division (asexual)

149

Circein

-a pheromone named after the Greek Goddess that attracts men
-attracts the androspore
-no new genetic combinations!
-enhance the likelihood of successful sexual reproduction

150

Function of the holdfast or basal cells or rhizoids

anchoring

151

High nutrient water usually indicates what?

pollution

152

Chrystalline cellulose

-some cell walls contains this
-insoluble in water
-resistant to chemicals
-makes cell wall very robust
-has fibres going in different directions, creating a lattice structure

153

Spermocarp envelope

-protective coat structure for the zygote on the vegetative cell

154

Trichogyne

the long, colourless neck on the oogonium

155

Isthmus

constriction around the structure of the cell

156

Desmids or "Desmos"

linked or in chains (two halves bonded together)

157

Scalariform conjugation

-two seperate filaments form a sort of ladder and are connected by a conjugation tube (lateral line up)

158

Papilla

Protrusion of the wall form a bump then extend outwards to create the conjugation tube to connect the contents of the two filaments

159

Placcoderm desmids vs Saccoderm desmids

Placoderm desmids: unicells constricted in middle to form two semi-cells with pores in cell wall for mucilage secretion (motile), has an isthmus
Saccoderm desmids: unicells not constricted into semicells, no pores in cell wall (nonmotile)

160

Oligotrophic water

low nutrient water

161

Pseudofilaments

individual cells get stuck together due to mucilage (creates buoyancy)

162

What is the common name of the Class Charophyceae?

stoneworts or skunkworts

163

Where do most green algae live in?

nutrient rich environments

164

Corrugations

small filaments on the exterior periphery of the filament

165

What is on the exterior of the cell wall of Charophyceae (stoneworts)?

deposits of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) during photosynthesis

166

Nucule vs Globule

-reproductive structures
-located at the axial
-has a sheath of sterile cells (unique for algae) surround the globules produced at nodes on lateral branches
-nucule=female
-globule=male

167

Endozoic

living inside animals

168

What are the socio-economic uses of Chlorophyta?

○ Chlorella grown commercially in Asia as health food supplement
○ “Green Plant Juice Blend” Has Spirulina, Chlorella *
○ Dunaliella and Haematococus sources of carotene for food colouring and pharmaceuticals
○Enteromorpha and Ulva consumed in Pacific region
○ Primary production in freshwater and marine ecosystems
○ Useful for physiological studies pertinent to higher pants (ex-carbon fixation)
○Nuisance growth in high-nutrient environments

169

What is the brown juice contents?

○ “Green Plant Juice Blend” Has Spirulina, Chlorella *

170

What were the results of the Fort White Diatoms Frustule Count?

• Lake today is becoming eutrophic=more diatoms
• Double the amount of phosphorus today
• High peak in chlorophyll today
• Trend where two peaks of lots of diatoms

171

Name the factors in algal distribution and abundance.

• Physical: Light, Temperature, Spatial Relations
• Chemical: Nutrients
•Biological: Herbivory, Allelopathy, Parasitism

172

Measuring PAR (photosynthetically active radiation)

-Secchi Disk Depth used to measure it
-Photic zone roughly 3X Secchi depth
-Invented by Italian astronomer Pietro Angelo Secchi, scientific advisor to the pope, in 1865 for water clarity measures
-Deeper you lower the disc, note at what depth you can no longer see it
-Light reflects off the disk
-Can also measure using a light meter to get direct measurement of PAR

173

What is the relationship between water and light and temperature?

-The more light, the warmer the water gets
- Water molecules absorb light, react to it and releases heat (chemical reaction)
- Blue light penetrates furthest or deepest so gives water its blue colour
-UV light is all gone at about 5 or 6 meters, so shallow water absorbs it all
-Infrared light is also absorbed very quickly in shallow waters

174

What is the lake stratification?

-epilimnion: closest to surface of the water
-metalimnion: in the middle
-hypnoliminion: at the deepest part of the lake
-water circulates in the epilimnion

175

What is the relationship between solubility of O2 and CO2 vs temperature?

-O2 and CO2 are inversely soluble vs temperature

176

Photic zone

- lighted part of the water (sufficient light to allow for photosynthesis) - multiply by 3

177

Which lake has the world record for the Secchi depth?

Crater Lake, Oregon has the world record Secchi depth (20 to 43.5 meters)
Photic zone would 43.5*3 = 130.5 meters

178

Importance of light : Direct Reasons

-Regulation of photosynthesis
-More light = more photosynthesis

179

Compensation point

Compensation point: where photosynthesis offsets respiration (=), where growth is 0, not enough light for photosynthesis, this point is not the same for all organisms

180

Importance of light : Indirect

-Influence of light on thermal regime (lake stratification)
-Gas solubility
-Metabolic rate
-Water circulation patterns with effects on nutrient cycling and distribution of chemicals
-Phototaxis and other behavioural effects
-The warmer water gets, the faster the metabolism activity
-Use of light with eyespot

181

Water column

vertical column from the surface of water all the way down

182

Name some algal strategies to maximize light capture

-Alter position in water column (flagella, gas vacuoles)
-Alteration of position and orientation of chloroplasts
-Increase in surface area to volume ratio (spines)
-Heterotrophy (if possible)
-Chromatic adaptation (pigmentation)
-Cyanobacteria are really good in high nutrient, high light waters due to having gas vacuoles enabling them to go up and down the water column
-Parietal chloroplasts can maximize light capture compared to axial chloroplasts that aren’t as good
-Low light algae have adapted to light deficiency (low Ik value), do this by altering their pigments (composition and quantity)

183

Inflection point

where the graph levels off

184

Ik

amount of light needed to achieve photosynthesis

185

Why is temperature important for algae : Direct

-Regulation of metabolism and photosynthesis
-Stimulus for sexual reproduction
-Affects algal buoyancy

186

Why is temperature important for algae : Indirect

-Affects water circulation patterns due to effects on density (stratification)
-Affects solubility of gases, mixing of nutrients

187

In a graph with temperature vs growth, where is inhibitory temperature range,suboptimal temperature range and optimal temperature range located on the graph?

suboptimal=upward sloping
optimal=peak that is constant
inhibitory=downward sloping

188

Q10

-Ratio comparing metabolic rate at one temperature with its rate at temperature 10 degrees Celsius
-Q10 = (rate at temp+10 degrees Celsius) / rate at temp)
-Often, Q10=2

189

How does sedimentation negatively affect algae?

-Most phytoplankton cells have density heavier than water (circa 1g/mL)
-Sedimentation affects them negatively because it reduces light for photosynthesis

190

How to deal with sedimentation : Water motion

1) Wind-driven convection (Langmuir) cells
-Parallel windrows visible on water surface
-Spiral movement in direction of wind
-Minimum 11 km/h needed for formation
-Cells concentrated in upwelling zones between rotating water masses
-upwelling=algae pulled up to surface
-downwelling=algae pulled down to bottom of lake
2) Seiches
-Horizontal movement from upwind to downwind side of lake basin
-Vertical movement as epilimnion oscillates back and forth during and after wind activity
3) Water column turnover
4) Dimnitic (mixed twice a year)
-Helps move algae up and down, like in the spring it is brought back up to the surface and begins to thrive

191

Langmuir cells

=wind driven convection
-caused by the wind where water starts to rotate
-upwelling=algae pulled up to the surface
-downwelling=algae pulled to the bottom

192

Dimnitic

-mixed twice a year
-Helps move algae up and down, like in the spring it is brought back up to the surface and begins to thrive

193

How to deal with sedimentation : Small cell size

-Sinking velocity inversely correlated with ratio of cell surface area to volume (S/V)
-Cells with lower S/V sink faster
-Smaller cells sink more slowly than larger ones
-Filamentous or colonial organisms sink faster than unicells because they have less surface area with the same mass
-Hydrodynamic drag: More surface area, the slower the rate of sinking
-Colonies have less surface area and sink faster, so big spaces in the middle allows them to sink slower

194

How to deal with sedimentation : Reduce cell density

-Store relatively light fats and lipids (don't take up as much volume)
-Store photosynthetic products and turn into something more compact gives it more density advantage (like lipids)
-Mucilage can help prevent drying out, but also to sink more slowly since it’s mostly water, so it has same density as water (lightens the cell, so sinks more slowly)
-Gas vacuoles only in Cyanobacteria allows for floatation, explains why there are blooms (has a competitive advantage)

195

Why might Cyanobacteria have a competitive advantage in algal blooms?

gas vacuoles for floatation

196

How to deal with sedimentation : Form resistance

-Spines and horns help to prevent sinking
-Teardrop shapes sink more rapidly than spheres

197

Since viscocity and density are inversely correlated to temperature, what is the conclusion to the sinking rate of algae?

Sinking rate will increase with increasing temperature

198

Phytoplankton

suspended in water

199

Periphyton

attached to surfaces

200

What are a periphyton's spatial architecture?

-Positive means of attachment
-Mucilage used to attach to surfaces
-Stalks can help take advantage of light and nutrients that are usually shaded by the bigger algae
-Lights and nutrients diminish as you go down, so at the bottom usually mixotrophic

201

What is the equation for growth based on periphyton's spatial architecture?

G=I+R-M-E-C
G=growth
I=immigration
R=reproduction
M=Mortality
E=Emigration
C=Grazing

202

Successional processes

-Accumulation of biomass
-Change in species composition resulting from competition for light, CO2, nutrients, attachment space, safety from grazing

203

Matrix effects on photosynthesis

-The thicker the mass of algae (a big matrix), the less the amount of photosynthesis per molecule of chrolorophyll
-Less light penetrating through the mass
-Dense shade
=spatial effect and algae growth