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1

concept of development

development is life long and influenced by education, occupation, income, culture, ethnicity, and gender.

2

lifespan perspective

life long, multidirectional, multidimensional, multidisciplinary, characterized by brain plasticity, and multicontextual.

3

life expectancy

predicted number of years a species will live

4

life span

womb to tomb- how long a species can live

5

historical theory of development: preformationism

children were believed to posses all their sensory, emotional, and mental capabilities at birth. And the unfolded over time with no involvement from the environment.

6

historical theory of development: Locke

children are blank slates and their environment is very important

7

historical theory of development: Rousseau

children should think freely and will develop naturally

8

historical theory of development: Freud

what children experience affects their adulthood. children are driven by instinct

9

longitudinal research

examine changes over time

10

cross sectional research

examine changes of different ages at the same time (how war affects elderly vs teens)

11

sequential research

involves both longitudinal and cross sectional

12

ericksons stages of development

trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and guilt, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation

13

fertilization

ovulation, sperm through fallopian tube, penetrate egg, make zygote

14

pregnancy stage: germinal

first stage. This has to occur for pregnancy and lasts 1 to 14 days

15

pregnancy stage: embryonic

second stage. lasts 3 to 8 weeks. major organs are constructed

16

pregnancy stage: fetal

third, final, and longest stage. weeks 9 until birth. genitalia is developed, light and sound sensitivity, reflexes, sleep cycles, pain perception, weight gain, prepare for birth

17

first stage of child birth

longest- contractions begin about thirty minutes apart. labor begins when water breaks.

18

second stage of child birth

less than an hour. baby is pushed out

19

third stage

shortest- expulsion of placenta

20

chromosomal disorders

if you inherit too many or few chromosomes. more likely from the mother. down syndrome, turner syndrome (generally affects women. xo instead of xx. may not be able to reproduce.), klinefelter syndrome (generally affects men. extra x chromosome. inhibits development of male genitalia.)

21

chromosomes

XY- male XX- female

22

myelin

fatty coating around the axon. myelin is insulation for the axons. The more myelin you have the better you think and see.

23

dendrites

short and bushy, they receive and take information.

24

axons

long- can extend several feet in the body, good for passing information

25

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

culture has a major impact on a child’s cognitive
development. He believed that the social interactions with adults and more learned peers can facilitate a child’s potential for learning.

26

authoritarian

commanding. do it because i said so

27

authortative

good communication and reasoning, well adjusted children

28

uninvolved

disengaged

29

permissive

no rules

30

personal fable

teens feel unique and special