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and 4 characteristics

The characteristics of CMC environments that make possible the various behaviours, such as making false claims about identity that audiences cannot double check

Persistence- internet is always on
Visibility- vast potential audience
Spreadability- content transfers easily
Searchability- people can find things quickly and easily


Group think Symptoms

Overestimation of group worth
Closed Mindedness
Pressures toward uniformity


Interaction Ritual chains
3 conditions for succes

and 4 outcomes

Conditions for success
-2 or more people are together in a significant exchange and see themselves as bonded insiders
-focus attention on a common object or activity, communicate this focus and become aware of each others focus
-They share common mood or emotional state

IR Chains outcomes
-increased solidarity and common cause
-Infused emotional energy
-an empowering of old symbols as sacred ones
-A moral code that punishes people who violate the sanctity of the rituals.


Participatory Culture

3 features

“Joint engrossment in something with others reinforces the reality

• 1) People work to sustain a fantasy reality. The joint effort works to reinforce the definition of the situation.
• 2) Joint engrossment requires distinguishing between participatory and marginal involvement.
• 3) Rules of relevance and irrelevance help to sustain the definitions of the situation.


The Antecedent conditions of group think

High Cohesiveness
structural factors
contextual factors


Decision making characteristics and remedial interventions **not that important

1.Limited consideration of options
2. Limited consideration of goals
3. Limited cost-benefit appraisal
4. Limited use of expert knowledge
5. Undue attention to facts that support ingroup choice
6. Limited reappraisal of options
7. Lack of contingency plans

Remedial interventions
1. Encourage critical evaluation
2. Higher administration takes impartial policy stance
3. Appoint independent groups and advisors
4. Group members seek feedback from their external constituents
5. Encourage criticism from outside experts
6. Appoint devil’s advocate
7. Careful evaluation of outgroup warnings
8. Have periodic division into sub-groups
9. Have ‘second-chance’ meetings


Minority Influence model

Majority view--Desire to be liked and correct-- superficial procession-- public acceptance private rejection--manifest/public influence

Minority view-- intrigue and desire to understand-- deep processing of minorities position-- public rejection, private acceptance---latent/private influence


5 step decision making process

-Step 1: do you notice something is happening
-Step 2: do you interpret it as an emergency
-Step 3: do you take on the responsibility to help
Step 4: can you decide how to Help
Step 5: Provide help


Arousal cost reward model

Witness person in distress- experience unpleasant arousal---evaluate costs and benefits--decide whether to help


Empathy Alturism Hypothesis

Perception someone is in distress

YES- Empathetic concern--ALturistic motive--reduce others distress

NO-- Personal Distress---Egotistic motive--reduce your own stress.