Final Exam 201-300 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Final Exam 201-300 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam 201-300 Deck (100):
1

The bony part of the bridge of the nose is formed by the

nasal bones

2

Alveolar processes are seen on two facial bones, the ______ and the ______

mandible; maxilla

3

Two foramina in the mandible that are important sites for injection of dental anesthetics are the mandibular foramen and the ______foramen.

mental

4

A triangular bone that forms the inferior and posterior part of the nasal septum is the

vomer

5

A bone located between the mandible and the larynx is the ______ bone

hyoid

6

The adult vertebral column consists of ____cervical vertebrae, _______thoracic vertebrae, _______lumbar vertebrae, _______sacral vertebrae fused into one, and ______coccygeal vertebrae fused into one or two bones.

7; 12; 5; 5; 4

7

The anteriorly concave curves of the vertebral column are the _______ and the _______

thoracic; sacral

8

The two short, thick processes between the body and laminae of a vertebra are the

pedicles

9

The largest vertebral foramina are found in the vertebrae of the _____region

cervical

10

An increase in abdominal weight may cause an exaggeration of the lumbar curvature of the spine known as swayback, or

lordosis

11

The functional classification of joints defined as slightly movable is the

amphiarthrosis

12

A fibrous joint uniting the bones of the skull is a

suture

13

The angle between articulating bones is decreased by a movement called

flexion

14

A bone moves away from the body's midline during

abduction

15

Any painful state of the body's supporting structures is known as

rheumatism

16

A degenerative joint disease that results from the combined effects of aging, irritation of joints, wear and abrasion, is

osteoarthritis

17

The forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint without dislocation is called a

sprain

18

A partial or incomplete dislocation is called a

subluxation

19

The study of motion of the human body is called

kinesiology

20

When an epiphyseal plate closes, it is transformed from a synchondrosis into a(n)

synostosis

21

In a symphysis, the articulating bones are joined by

fibrocartilage

22

A syndesmosis would be classified structurally as a ______joint

fibrous

23

The function of the inner lining of the articular capsule is to produce

synovial fluid

24

Fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another in a joint capsule is called a

ligament

25

Nutrients are supplied to the chondrocytes of the articular cartilage by

synovial fluid

26

Fluid-filled sacs located between bones and overlying tissues that help alleviate pressure are called

bursae

27

Fibrocartilage pads that extend from the fibrous capsule into the joint cavity between articulating bones in large synovial joints are called

articular discs (menisci)

28

Someone who has a "torn cartilage" in the knee has damaged a(n)

articular disc (meniscus)

29

The elbow is an example of a(n) _____joints

hinge

30

The articulation of the clavicle and the acromion process of the scapula is an example of a(n) _____joint

gliding

31

The combined movements of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction is called

circumduction

32

The movement of the thumb so that the tip of the thumb can meet the tip of any other digits on the same hand is referred to as

opposition

33

The joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb is an example of a _____joint

saddle (sellaris)

34

The glenohumeral joint and the coxal joint are the only examples of the _____joint

ball-and-socket

35

The periodontal membrane separates the articulating bones of a

gomphosis

36

A freely movable joint is called a

diarthrosis

37

Bending the soles of the feet outwardly (laterally) so that the soles face away from each other is called

eversion

38

The narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the glenoid cavity is called the

glenoid labrum

39

The anterior surface of the knee is strengthened by the fused tendons of the quadriceps femoris muscle and the fascia lata, known as the

patellar retinacular

40

The ligament stretched or torn in 70% of all serious knee injuries is the

anterior cruciate ligament

41

Muscle tissue that is both non-striated and involuntary is

smooth muscle tissue

42

The ability of muscle tissue to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals (action potentials) is called

excitability (irritability)

43

The ability of muscle tissue to return to its original shape after contracting or stretching is called

elasticity

44

The dense irregular connective tissue that carries nerves and blood vessels, fills the spaces between muscles into functional groups is the

deep fascia

45

A broad, flat tendon that connects muscle to bone, muscle, or skin is called a(n)

aponeurosis

46

The region of a sarcolemma adjacent to the axon terminals at a neuromuscular junction is called the

motor end plate

47

Acetylcholine receptors are located on the

sarcolemma (motor end plate)

48

The region of the sarcomere that contains only thick myofilaments is the

H zone

49

The region of the sarcomere that contains only thin myofilaments is the

I zone

50

The thick myofilaments are anchored to the Z discs and stabilized during contraction and relaxation by

elastic filaments (titin)

51

A triad consists of two terminal cisterns and a(n)

transverse tubule

52

Myosin binding sites on actin are exposed when troponin changes shape as a result of binding

calcium ions

53

The shape change (swiveling) that occurs as myosin heads bind to actin produces the _______of contraction

power stroke

54

Muscle contraction without muscle shortening is called ______contraction

isometric

55

The time between the application of a stimulus and the beginning of contraction, when calcium ions are being released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, is called the ____period

latent

56

The time following a stimulus during which a muscle cell is unable to respond to another stimulus is called a ______period

refractory

57

A sustained contraction with no relaxation between stimuli is called

complete (fused) tetanus

58

In a well-relaxed muscle, several identical stimuli administered in quick succession, but allowing complete relaxation between stimuli, will result in a phenomenon known as

treppe (the staircase effect)

59

Involuntary activation of a small number of motor units causes sustained, small contractions that give a relaxed skeletal muscle a firmness known as

muscle tone

60

Muscles that exhibit hypotonia are said to be

flaccid

61

Tension generated by tendons, elastic filaments, and connective tissues surrounding muscle fibers is called _____tension

passive

62

An isotonic contraction in which the muscle shortens to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint is called a(n) ______contraction

concentric

63

An isotonic contraction in which the muscle lengthens to produce a movement and to increase the angle at a joint is called a(n) ______contraction

eccentric

64

The wasting away of muscles due to progressive loss of myofibrils is called

atrophy

65

In the phosphagen system, high-energy phosphate groups can be stroed for future ATP production by combining with

creatine

66

During anaerobic glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two molecules of _______, resulting in a net gain of _____ molecules of ATP

pyruvic acid; two

67

The reactions of cellular respiration occurring in the mitochondria are said to be aerobic because they require

oxygen

68

During long-term exercise, most ATP is produced as a result of

aerobic cellular respiration

69

Each cardiac muscle fiber in a network is connected to its neighbors by an irregular transverse thickening of the sarcolemma known as a(n)

intercalated disc

70

In smooth muscle, myosin binds to actin only after the myosin head has been phosphorylated via the action of the enzyme

myosin light chain kinase

71

The blood-testis barrier is formed just internal to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule by tight junctions between ________cells

sustentacular

72

The cells in the seminiferous tubule that secrete testosterone are the

interstitial endocrinocytes

73

The process of cell division in which diploid cells are converted to haploid gametes is called

meiosis

74

Division of each primary spermatocyte eventually produces _____ spermatids

four

75

Release of LH and FSH is regulated by the hormone _____ produced by the hypothalamus

GnRH

76

A hormone secreted by sustentacular cells that targets the anterior pituitary to inhibit secretion of FSH is

inhibin

77

A tightly coiled tube, 6m x 1mm, that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the

epididymus

78

Teh testicular artery, veins, autonomic nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle together constitute the

spermatic cord

79

An accessory gland lying inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounding the urethra in the male is the

prostate gland

80

The average volume of semen in an ejaculation is _______with a sperm count of _______per milliliter

2.5-5mL; 50-150 million

81

An antibiotic present in semen is

seminalplasmin

82

The paired dorsolateral masses of erectile tissue of the penis are called the ___________; the smaller midventral mass is called the ___________

corpora cavernosa penis; corpora spongiosum penis

83

The vascular changes resulting in an erection are the result of a _______reflex

parasympathetic

84

Covering the glands of an uncircumcised penis is the foreskin, also known as the

prepuce

85

The _________ is formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the ductus deferens

ejaculatory duct

86

The white capsule of dense, irregular connective tissue that is immediately deep to the germinal epithelium of the ovary is called the

tunica albuginea

87

During early female fetal development, primordial germ cells migrate from the endoderm of the yolk sac to the ovaries, where they differentiate into

oogonia

88

Degeneration of the primary germ cells during female fetal development is called

atresia

89

Finger-like projections of the infundibulum of the uterine tubes are called

fimbriae

90

The inferior narrow portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina is called the

cervix

91

The layer of the endometrium nearest to the uterine cavity that is shed during menstruation is the

stratum functionalis

92

A hysterectomy is surgical removal of the

uterus

93

The female structure that is homologous to the penis of the male is the

clitoris

94

The form (stage) of the egg that is ovulated is the

secondary oocyte

95

During the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium is prepared to receive a fertilized ovum principally by the hormone _______produced by the corpus luteum

progesterone

96

One of the most widely used spermicides in contraceptive creams, foams, sponges, etc., is

nonoxynol-9 (or octoxynol-9)

97

Onset of the first menses is called ______; permanent cessation of menses as part of the aging process is called _____

menarche; menopause

98

The male pattern of differentiation of primitive gonads in the embryo depends on the presence of a master gene on the Y chromosome called

SRY

99

A chancre at the point of contact is the symptom of the primary stage of the sexually transmitted disease

syphilis

100

Infection of the uterine tubes is called

salpingitis