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Biology - Black > Final Exam - 2016 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam - 2016 Deck (150):
1

What is the term for a flow of energy that moves from one single species to another single species?

Food Chain

2

What is the term for all the changes that occur in a lifetime?

Development

3

What is the term for the keeping of a constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment?

homeostasis

4

What is the term for the joining of two non-identical cells to form one cell?

sexual reproduction

5

What flows through life systems and always begins with the sun?

energy

6

What is the term for the making of more cells or the increase in the material of one cell?

growth

7

What is the term for a group of similar looking organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring?

species

8

What is the term for a testable explanation of a situation?

Hypothesis

9

What is the term for a change in an organism to make it better suited to live in its environment?

adaptation

10

What is the term for a reaction to a stimulus?

response

11

What is the term for any change in the surroundings of an organism that causes it to react?

stimulus

12

What is the term for the production of two identical cells from one cell?

asexual reproduction

13

What is the term for the study of the standards of what is right and wrong?

ethics

14

What is the term for the surrounding of an organism?

environment

15

What is the term for the symbiotic relationship illustrated by a tick and a dog?

parasitism

16

What is the term for the role that an organism plays in it environment?

niche

17

What is the term for an expression of all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level?

Food Web

18

What is the term for the symbiotic relationship in which both species are benefitted?

mutualism

19

What is the term for organisms that feed on dead organisms and return nutrients to the soil?

detritivores

20

What is the term for an organism that is unable to make its own food and must take in nutrients made by other living things?

heterotroph

21

What is the term for an organism that has the ability to make it own food?

autotroph

22

What is the term for the act of one animal preying on another?

Predation

23

What is the term for the place or area in which an organism lives?

habitat

24

What is the term for a group of populations inhabiting the same place at the same point in time?

community

25

What is the symbiotic relationship in which one organism is benefitted while the other is unaffected?

commensalism

26

What substance is starch, sugar, cellulose and glycogen all an example of?

carbohydrates

27

Who was the Swedish Botanist who classified organisms based on physical characteristics?

Carolus Linnaeus

28

What is the term for a set of paired statements about characteristics that can be used to identify organisms?

dichotomous Key

29

What is the branch of biology that is concerned with the grouping and naming of organisms?

taxonomy

30

What is the term for a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together, usually in chains?

Polymer

31

What is the term for the grouping of organisms or information based on similarities?

Classification

32

What is the term for the evolutionary history of a species?

Phylogeny

33

What is the term for a group of protons, neutrons and electrons together as a group - the building block of matter?

atom

34

What are the two latin word naming system for all organisms?

Binomial Nomenclature

35

What is a combination of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties?

mixture

36

What is the Kingdom that some plant-like, animal-like, and fungus-like organisms belong to?

Protista

37

What is the term for a molecule with a large portion of C-H bonds and are used for long term storage?

Lipid

38

What is the term for a negatively charged particle that circles the outside of the nucleus?

electron

39

What is the term for the classification where organisms are categorized based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to a group's most recent common ancestor?

Cladistics

40

What is the term for organisms in this particular Kingdom that are photosynthetic autotrophs?

Plantae

41

What is the term for the center of an atom?

Nucleus

42

What is the term for the group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds and have no overall charge?

Molecule

43

What is the chemical formula for glucose?

C6H12O6

44

What is the term for a chain of amino acids?

Protein

45

What is the Kingdom in which organisms obtain food from diverse pathways?

Monera

46

What is the Kingdom in which organisms absorb nutrients from decomposing or dead organisms?

fungi

47

What is the term for a positively charged particle found in the center of an atom?

Proton

48

What is the Kingdom for organisms that are eukaryotic multi-cellular consumers?

Animalia

49

What is a substance that is composed of atoms of different elements chemically bonded?

Compounds

50

What is the term for a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances?

elements

51

What is the term used as a storage tool?

vacuole

52

What is something that transports light energy into chemical energy - a plastid?

Chloroplast

53

What is the plasma membrane make up of?

Phospholipid bilayer

54

What is the term for cells that only have two sets of chromosomes known as?

diploid

55

What is the term for what supports plant cells, by giving them a rigid structure?

cell wall

56

What is the term for an organelle that converts sugars into energy?

mitochondria

57

What receives newly made proteins and distributes them?

Golgi bodies

58

What is the term for the part of a cell that receives newly made proteins and distributes them?

Golgi bodies

59

What is the term for different gene forms?

alleles

60

What is the control center of the cell?

nucleus

61

What is the process by which food molecules are broken down to release energy?

respiration

62

What is the production of carbohydrates by plants that using the sun's energy called?

photogynthesis

63

What is the term for when the concentration of dissolved substances is lower than the concentration inside the cell?

hypotonic

64

What is the term for sex cells?

gametes

65

What is the term for the concentration of dissolved substances that are higher than the concentration inside the cell?

hypertonic

66

What is the site of protein synthesis?

ribosomes

67

What is the term for the structures on the outside of a cell that are used for motion?

cilia or flagella

68

What is the folded system of membranes that act as a protein dilivery system?

Rough - - smoother

69

What is the cell division that take place in the sex cells?

meiosis

70

What is the term for the structure that holds together sister chromatids?

centromeres

71

What is the term for the structures that are made of DNA and pass on genetic information?

Chromosomes

72

What is the term for the cell division of all the cells of the body except for sex cells?

mitosis

73

What pulls the chromosomes apart?

spindle fibers

74

What makes the spindle fibers and strengthens and reinforces?

centrioles

75

What is the term for cells that only have one set of chromosomes?

haploids

76

What are the small units that are made up of deoxyribose, phosphate group and nitrogenous base?

nucleotides

77

What is the three letter sequence of tRNA that represents a specific amino acid?

anti-codon

78

What is the process of creating RNA from DNA?

transcription

79

What is the strand of genetic code that was created in the nucleus which matches the DNA strand?

mRNA

80

What is the process of creating protein from RNA?

tRNA

81

What is the term for the physical appearance of an organism?

Phenotype

82

What is the term for the scientific study of heredity?

genetics

83

What is ribosomal RNA?

rRNA

84

What is the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly?

nondisjuncton

85

What disease is caused by a point nutation causing a change in hemoglobin and red blood cell shapes?

sickle cell anemia

86

What refers to the fraction or percentage that describes the likelihood of something happening?

probability

87

What is the table or charts that records a line of ancestors?

Pedigree

88

What is the term for the making an exact copy of an organism by using the DNA of another organism?

coloning

89

What is the term for the shape of DNA - twisted ladder like a spiral staircase?

double helix

90

What is the term for the gene combination an organism contains?

genotype

91

What is used to help determine how often a trait appears in a small randomly selected group and projecting those results on the population as a whole?

population sampling

92

What is the three letter sequence of mRNA?

codon

93

What is the nitrogenous base found in RNA ONLY and replaces thymine?

uracil

94

What is the cell organelle that is responsible for synthesizing proteins?

ribosomes

95

What is the term for a grid that is used to visualize the probable offspring of genetic crosses?

Punnett squares

96

What determines the sex of an organism and is represented by X and or Y?

sex chromosomes

97

What is thymine, quanine, cytosine and adenine examples of?

nitrogenous bases

98

What is the term for the process of creating protein from RNA?

translation

99

What is the term for different gene forms?

Allele

100

What is the genetic disorder where an extra finger or toe is present?

polydactyly

101

What are different underlying structures - same function and similar environments?

analogous structures

102

What is the body structure that is reduced in function in a living organism, but may have been used by previous ancestors?

vestigial structures

103

What is the name of the most common type of bacteria - causes disease and decay - and gets energy from other sources?

Eubacteria

104

What is the term for when organisms evolve and come together to one another through they have a common ancestor?

convergence

105

What is the process by which bacteria reproduce asexually?

binary fission

106

What is the term for any evidence of an organism that lived long ago?

fossil

107

What is the term for the hominid that is known as the "Handy Man"?

Homo habilis

108

What has the same underlying structures, different functions and different environments?

homologous

109

What is the term for characteristically walking on two legs?

bipedalism

110

What bacteria live in the presence of oxygen?

aerobes

111

What is the protective outer covering of some bacteria?

endorspore

112

What bacteria CANNOT live in the presence of oxygen?

anerobes

113

What is the term for the transfer of some chromosomes from one bacterium to another?

conjugation

114

What is the term for the change in an organism over time due to its environment?

evolution

115

What is the term for organisms that evolve and branch out and away from one another, though they have a common ancestor?

divergence

116

What is the formal term for Lucy the hominid?

Australopithecus afarensis

117

What is the term for a finger that can be brought opposite the other fingers?

opposable thumb

118

What is the term for the type of flower that has long, think parallel veins - and flower petals that are arranged into multiples of three?

Monocot

119

What is the term for movement of an organism away from light?

Negative phototropism

120

What phylum includes organisms such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans?

Arthropoda

121

What is the asexual reproduction where a filament is broken and each fragment continues to grow on its own?

fragmentation

122

In colonial green algae - chloroplasts are long, slender and spiraled ribbons are?

spirogyra

123

What is another name for "false feet" the way an amoeba moves?

pseudopodia

124

In what phylum include the following organisms fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals?

Chordata

125

Chrysophyta are an example of diatoms - which one?

golden algae

126

What is the ability of a protists to detect and avoid objects in their path?

avoidance reaction

127

What is the term for when a living organisms gives off light?

bioluminescence

128

What is the type of sporozoan that causes Malaria?

plasmodium

129

Phaeophyta - - has tissues resembling the roots, stems and leaves of plants?

brown algae

130

What is the glass-like structure that is found in the cell walls of a diatom?

silica

131

What belongs to kingdom Monera - it includes halophils, thermophils and methanogens?

archeabacteria

132

What is the term for the evolution of a new species over time by isolation/natural barriers?

speciation

133

What is the term for the bacterium that live without oxygen and give off methane?

methanogens

134

What are small changes in an organism over a long period of time - - or type of speciation?

gradualsim

135

What is a nonliving particle that can reproduce when it is in a living cell?

virus

136

What cylce allows viral DNA to be reproduced in many cells?

Lysogenic cylce

137

What is the viral cycle in which the virus destroys the host's DNA?

Lytic cycle

138

What are large changes in an organism that happens rapidly - followed by no change and is a type of speciation?

Punctuated equilibrium

139

In what phylum are organisms known as segmented worms?

Annelida

140

What is the term for a leaf whose blade is divided into two or more distinct leaflets?

Compound leaf

141

What lacks one or more of the following organisms - petals, sepals, stamen and pistil?

incomplete flower

142

What phylum do the organisms have a water vascular system which is used for movement and structure?

Echinodermata

143

What is the term for the leaf that is not divided into parts?

Simple leaf

144

What term is used for having all four organs (petals, sepals, stamen and pistil)?

Complete flower

145

What is the veins branch stalk to stem - flower petals arranged in multiple of 4 or 5?

Dicot

146

What is the term for a seed-bearing cone - but has no fruit or flower?

Gymnosperm

147

What are ferns an example of?

Pterophyta

148

Mosses and liverworts are examples of what?

Bryophyta

149

In what phylum do the organisms have three distinct body parts (head/foot, mantle and visceral mass)?

Molluska

150

Flowering plants are the most successful plants on what?

Angiosperm