Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (134)
Respiratory neurons located where set the basic drive for ventilation?
Brain stem in general, dorsal respiratory group more specifically
All muscles of inspiration lift up the rib cage except the __.
T/F: The SCM is a muscle of inspiration
Expiratory muscles work to ___ thoracic cage volume.
Is it better to lose inspiratory muscles or expiratory muscles?
Expiratory b/c passive expiration is possible, (the only thing we couldn't do is cough/sneeze/other forced expiration)
Which muscle of expiration may also play a role in low back pain if weakened?
What is responsible for the passive recoil of the lungs?
Surface tension forces
When is alveolar pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure?
At the end of inspiration and at the end of expiration
What is responsible for keeping the lung inflated against the chest wall?
Pleural pressure (negative pressure that exists between parietal and visceral pleura)
Alveolar pressure is ___ atmospheric during inspiration and __ atmospheric during expiration.
Above atmospheric -expir
T/F: As transpulmonary pressure increases, the lung has more recoil tendency.
When does transpulmonary pressure peak?
At end of inspiration-->passive recoil of expiration
What is hysteresis?
At the onset of inspiration, the pleural pressure changes at a faster rate than the lung volume.
Which is easier to inflate: air filled lung or saline filled lung?
Saline filled lung b/c loss of surface tension forces
What is eupnea?
Normal pattern of breathing
___ is the pattern of breathing that occurs by increasing pulmonary ventilation to match metabolic demand
Hyperpnea (ex: happens during exercise)
What is orthopnea and what can it be indicative of?
Difficulty breathing when lying down, relieved by standing; congestive heart failure or lung failure
What is pleural fluid?
Mucus-like fluid that provides lubrication
What is pleural effusion and what normally prevents it?
Accumulation of large amts of free fluid in pleural space; doesn't occur if lymphatics are removing excess fluid like normal
Type __ alveolar epithelial cells produce ___, which is a aqueous fluid that reduces surface tension in the lung.
Type II; surfactant
What size alveoli are more susceptible to collapse if surfactact is absent?
__ volume is the amount of air moved in and out with each breath.
What is the maximum volume one can exchange in a respiratory cycle?
Vital Capacity (IRV+TV+ERV)
What is volume of air left in the lungs after a normal expiration?
Functional Residual Capacity (ERV + RV)
What are the 3 volumes that can be detected using spirometry?
TV, ERV, IRV
If all muscles of respiration were paralyzed what would be the volume in the lungs?
Functional residual capacity
What volumes/capacities cannot be determined with basic spirometry?
RV, TLC, FRC
What is decreased in a restrictive lung condition?
Decr vital capacity
What is decreased in an obstructive lung condition?
Decr flow rate