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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (134)
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1

Respiratory neurons located where set the basic drive for ventilation?

Brain stem in general, dorsal respiratory group more specifically

2

All muscles of inspiration lift up the rib cage except the __.

Diaphragm

3

T/F: The SCM is a muscle of inspiration

True

4

Expiratory muscles work to ___ thoracic cage volume.

Decrease

5

Is it better to lose inspiratory muscles or expiratory muscles?

Expiratory b/c passive expiration is possible, (the only thing we couldn't do is cough/sneeze/other forced expiration)

6

Which muscle of expiration may also play a role in low back pain if weakened?

Transverse abdominis

7

What is responsible for the passive recoil of the lungs?

Surface tension forces

8

When is alveolar pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure?

At the end of inspiration and at the end of expiration

9

What is responsible for keeping the lung inflated against the chest wall?

Pleural pressure (negative pressure that exists between parietal and visceral pleura)

10

Alveolar pressure is ___ atmospheric during inspiration and __ atmospheric during expiration.

Sub-atmospheric -insp
Above atmospheric -expir

11

T/F: As transpulmonary pressure increases, the lung has more recoil tendency.

True

12

When does transpulmonary pressure peak?

At end of inspiration-->passive recoil of expiration

13

What is hysteresis?

At the onset of inspiration, the pleural pressure changes at a faster rate than the lung volume.

14

Which is easier to inflate: air filled lung or saline filled lung?

Saline filled lung b/c loss of surface tension forces

15

What is eupnea?

Normal pattern of breathing

16

___ is the pattern of breathing that occurs by increasing pulmonary ventilation to match metabolic demand

Hyperpnea (ex: happens during exercise)

17

What is orthopnea and what can it be indicative of?

Difficulty breathing when lying down, relieved by standing; congestive heart failure or lung failure

18

What is pleural fluid?

Mucus-like fluid that provides lubrication

19

What is pleural effusion and what normally prevents it?

Accumulation of large amts of free fluid in pleural space; doesn't occur if lymphatics are removing excess fluid like normal

20

Type __ alveolar epithelial cells produce ___, which is a aqueous fluid that reduces surface tension in the lung.

Type II; surfactant

21

What size alveoli are more susceptible to collapse if surfactact is absent?

Smaller

22

__ volume is the amount of air moved in and out with each breath.

Tidal volume

23

What is the maximum volume one can exchange in a respiratory cycle?

Vital Capacity (IRV+TV+ERV)

24

What is volume of air left in the lungs after a normal expiration?

Functional Residual Capacity (ERV + RV)

25

What are the 3 volumes that can be detected using spirometry?

TV, ERV, IRV

26

If all muscles of respiration were paralyzed what would be the volume in the lungs?

Functional residual capacity

27

What volumes/capacities cannot be determined with basic spirometry?

RV, TLC, FRC

28

What is decreased in a restrictive lung condition?

Decr vital capacity

29

What is decreased in an obstructive lung condition?

Decr flow rate

30

Is it possible to have both an obstructive and a restrictive lung condition?

Yes, COPD for example