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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (247)
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1

What is the purpose of vitamins?

Promote growth and health maintenance

2

What are the two classes of water soluble vitamins?

B and C

3

What are the four classes of fat-soluble vitamins?

ADEK

4

Do we need multivitamins?

Nope- can get everything from a balanced diet

5

Why is fortification of foods a concern for vitamins?

If too much fortification or consumption of fortified foods, can have vitamin toxicities

6

Why was 1994 an important year in the vitamin industry?

Supplements became unregulated based on a 1994 bill-- allowed supplements to have whatever they wanted in them; concern for toxicities; no validity required for so-called "natural" sources

7

Why are vitamin supplements insufficient for vitamin intake?

Don't supply phytonutrients like real food does, and doesn't provide any real-food-related health benefits from a varied diet

8

What needs to happen in order for the body to use vitamins?

Need to be absorbed -- won't create toxicity if not absorbed

9

What does it mean to be a fat soluble vitamin?

Needs to be ingested with fat and transported in chylomicrons

10

What does it mean to be a water soluble vitamin?

May require transport molecules or something else specific in the GI tract, but can be easily transported in aqueous solutions

11

What chemical group do many (all?) B vitamins function as?

coenzymes -- vitamin combines with a chemical group to form a functional coenzyme, which combines with another subunit to create the active enzyme; can be separated and reused after participating in a reaction

12

What does it mean for a B vitamin to become activated?

Has combined with a chemical group to create a functional enzyme subunit -- but still must combine with another enzymatic subunit to become a fully functional enzyme

13

What is the general function of B vitamins?

Help with energy release in metabolism; do not supply energy themselves, but can make the metabolic process more productive

14

Why is frozen food so high in phytonutrients?

Because can have it on the plant longer -- freeze right after it gets ripe, not before

15

Is organic a real thing?

Not really -- many organic farms are right next to non-organic farms, so pesticides and chemicals may travel due to soil, air, water, etc.

16

What are the seven B vitamins?

Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, biotin, B12, folate

17

What is thiamin?

First B vitamin identified: "B1" -- helps with energy production and carb metabolism

18

Name thiamin's function.

Assists in energy production, helps with carb metabolism (conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coA); nervous system health (because NS uses a lot of energy)

19

What is thiamin deficiency?

Beri-beri ("i can't i can't) -- nervous system failure; also associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in alcoholics

20

What are some sources of thiamin?

pork, lentils, bread and spaghetti from fortification

21

What is riboflavin?

B vitamin found in milk, pork

22

How does riboflavin respond to light/heat?

destroyed by light/heat -- reason for opaque milk containers

23

What two electron carriers is riboflavin used as a coenzyme for?

FAD and FMN (can remember because of names: "flavin etc. etc."

24

What part of metabolism is riboflavin important for?

electron transport chain -- used in FAD and FMn electron carriers

25

What is riboflavin deficiency?

ariboflavinosis (rare in US) -- inflammation in lips, mouth, tongue

26

What is niacin?

B vitamin synthesized from AA Trp

27

Where do you get niacin from?

Meat sources -- can be synthesized from Trp

28

How does niacin function as a coenzyme?

NAD and NADP -- "nicotinamide etc. etc." for energy release in metabolism

29

Where in metabolism is niacin important?

glycolysis, TCA, ETC -- used in NAD and NADP

30

What ia niacin deficiency?

pellagra: four Ds (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death)