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Flashcards in final exam Deck (91):
1

Integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands

2

outermost layer of the skin

stratum corneum

3

what makes sweat antimicrobial?

Low pH
High salt concentration
Contains lysozyme

4

what are the conditions of the skin?

dry
salty
acidic

5

MRSA stands for what?

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

6

how is the spread of measles reduced?

through vaccines

7

how are Maculopapular Rash Diseases spread?

-through respiratory droplets
-humans are the only reservoir

8

what type of disease is measles?

Maculopapular Rash Diseases

9

another word for measles

rubeola

10

treatment for measles

Reducing fever
Suppressing cough
Replacing lost fluid and electrolytes
Remedies to relieve neurological and respiratory symptoms
Vitamin A supplements are recommended

11

disease that results in a "slapped cheek" appearance

fifth disease

12

how is fifth disease treated and prevented?

no vaccine and no treatment

13

Symptoms of small pox

Fever, malaise, and rash

14

How is small pox spread?

Droplets
Bedding and clothing can also spread the disease

15

Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Localized infection of the capillaries

16

Transmission of leishmaniasis

Female sand flies

17

Causative agent of cutaneous anthrax

Bacillus anthracis

18

What causes infection if the conjunctiva?

Specific microorganism
Eye injury
Contact lens

19

Symptoms of bacterial infections of the conjunctiva

Milky discharge

20

causative agent of fifth disease

parvovirus B19

21

what is the causative agent of roseola?

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and sometimes HHV-7

22

causative agent of Chickenpox and Shingles

Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3)

23

causative agent of small pox

Variola virus

24

causative agent of Leishmaniasis

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Leishmania tropica
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Leishmania siliensis

25

causative agent of Cutaneous Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis

26

what causes Meningoencephalitis?

-Naegleria fowleri
-Acanthamoeba

27

Neuromuscular disease also known as “lockjaw”

Tetanus

28

what covers the heart and is also a target of microbial infection?

Endocardium

29

what the innermost layer of blood vessels is composed of

smooth endothelium

30

what the middle layer of blood vessels is composed of

connective tissue and muscle fibers-Outer layer: thin layer of connective tissue

31

Viremia

presence of viruses in the blood

32

Fungemia

presence of fungi in the blood

33

Bacteremia

presence of bacteria in the blood

34

SSSS

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

35

what family does rubella virus come from?

Togaviridae

36

causative agents of Impetigo

either Staphylococcus aureusor Streptococcus pyogenes, or combination of the two

37

treatment for roseola

no treatment and no vaccine

38

what disease can Neisseria meningitidis cause?

meningitis

39

what vaccine has reduced the incidenses of Haemophilus influenza

HIB

40

causative agent of tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

41

MDR-TB

multidrug resistance

42

XDR-TB

extensively drug resistant

43

TDR-TB

totally drug resistant

44

what type of genome structure does HIV have

single stranded RNA

45

causative agent of whooping cough

Bordetella

46

what agents cause pharyngitis?

the same viruses that cause the common cold

47

causative agent of the bubonic plague

Yersinia pestis

48

what transmits the bubonic plague?

fleas

49

causative agent of Tularmenia

Francisella tularensis

50

what trasmits tularmenia?

rabbits and rodents

51

causative agent of lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi

52

what transmits lyme disease?

ticks

53

characteristics of Maculopapular Rash Diseases

-Skin eruptions caused by a variety of microbes
-Flat to slightly raised colored bumps

54

causative agent of measles and its family and genus

measles virus
genus: Morbillivirus
family: Paramyxovirus

55

types of Leishmaniasis

Cutaneous leishmaniasis
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

56

virus that causes rubella

rubivirus

57

prevention for rebulla virus

Attenuated rubella vaccine

58

causative agent of SSSS

Staphylococcus aureus

59

symptoms of impetigo

Lesion: peeling skin, crusty and flaky scabs, or honey-colored crusts

60

vaccine for impetigo?

no vaccine

61

what is fomite?

any nonliving object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms

62

what vaccine is used for chicken pox?

Live attenuated vaccine

63

symptoms of meningitis

Headache
Painful or stiff neck
Fever, Nausea and vomiting (
Photophobia
Skin rashes

64

how is meningitis diagnosed?

Lumbar puncture (spinal tap), Gram stain, and/or culture of CSF are performed when meningitis is suspected

65

what disease can Haemophilus influenzae cause?

meningitis

66

another name for viral meningitis

aseptic meningitis

67

how is viral meningitis diagnosed?

failure to find bacteria or protoza

68

which diseases can Streptococcus pneumoniae cause?

conjuctivitis
meningitis

69

what organisms can cause amoebic meningoencephalitis ?

Naegleria fowleri
Acanthamoeba

70

how is amoebic meningoencephalitis transmitted?

fresh bodies of water

71

Septicemia

bacteria growing and flourishing in the blood

72

symptoms of malaria

fatigue, vague aches, and nausea with or without diarrhea, chills, fever, and sweating

73

causative agents of malaria

Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale

74

life cycle of malaria

Asexual phase: carried out in the human
Sexual phase: carried out in the mosquito

75

diagnosis of malaria

stained blood smear

76

genus of HIV virus

Lentivirus

77

how does HIV replicate?

inside dendritic cells and the virus is shed without killing the cell

78

symptoms of endocarditis

Inflammation of the endocardium, or inner lining of the heart
Fever, fatigue, joint pain, edema of feet, legs, and abdomen, weakness, anemia, abnormal heartbeat

79

when does endocarditis typically occur?

when the bacteria is directly entered into the body

80

main organism causing endocarditis

Staphylococcus aureus

81

symptoms of lyme disease

A rash at the site of a tick bite looks like a bull’s-eye with a raised erythematous ring

82

what causes sleeping sickness?

T. brucei

83

defenses of the respiratory tract

normal biota
nasal hair
ciliary escalator'
coughing and sneezing
mucus

84

what causes bacterial pharyngitis ?

Streptococcus pyogenes
Fusobacterium necrophorum

85

most serious type of pharynitis

bacterial pharyngitis

86

what are all the different ways pharyngitis can occur?

bacteria
virus
stress
allergy

87

how is whooping cough prevented?

acellular vaccine

88

vaccine for tuberculosis

BCG vaccine

89

symptoms of TB

Violent coughing with greenish or bloody sputum
Low-grade fever
Anorexia, weight loss
Extreme fatigue, night sweats
Chest pain

90

of the Prevnar vaccine has reduced the incidence of which disease?

Acute otitis media

91

causative agent of strept throat

Streptococcus pyogenes