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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (178):
1

Actualization Gap

The distance between fantasy and reality, we can wish for super powers, but there is a distance "a gap" between what we can do in reality, and actually achieving super powers

2

Alturism

The desire to help another without expectations of personal gain.

3

Attitudes

Positive and negative evaluations of people, objects, events, and ideas

4

Attitude Accessibility

The extent to which an attitude is frequently invoked or expressed.

5

Attributive practices

Actors use these to express something about themselves.

6

Authentication Practices

The tactics that people use to build up a credible performance

7

Autoethnography

An ethnographic approach where the researcher is also the participant being studied

8

Backstage

Any area where a person takes a break from the persona they have been performing, it is a place of rehearsal and preparation for future performances.

9

Behavioural Intentions

The degree to which a person intends to engage in a particular behaviour with respect to their attitude of an object

10

Bounded Rationality

The limits on what information is gatherable and on human capacities to process that information. (sometimes we just dont know so we guess)

11

Bystander Effect

We are less likely to help in emergency situations when there are other people present than if we are alone.

12

Calculated Impressions

The impressions a person seeks to make with their performance.

13

Categoric Identification

Placing a person into one or more social categories- embedded in pre-existing categories such as a worker of a particular rank and nature.

14

Civil Inattention

Purposefully declining a detailed interaction, while allowing for superficial acknowledge

15

Civil Inattention

Purposefully declining a detailed interaction, while allowing for superficial acknowledgment of others.

16

Classical Conditioning

When a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a certain response, that response becomes associated to the neutral stimulus.

17

Cognitive Dissonance

An emotional state where two simultaneously held attitudes or beliefs are inconsistent or when there is a conflict between belief and over behaviour. The resolution of the conflict is assumed to serve as a basis for attitude change, in that belief patterns are generally modified so as to be consistent with behaviour.

18

Collapsed Contexts

Describes how previously separated contexts and stages for performing can now converge.

19

Collective knowledge

The sum total of information held individually by members of a knowledge community that can be accessed in response to a specific question

20

Collectivist Culture

Members view the self as part of a larger social network including family, friends, and co-workers

21

Common Ingroup Identity Approach

In order to reduce prejudice, a cognitive re-categorization of "us" vs. "them" into "all of us" is required.

22

Compliance

Behaviour change as a result of a direct request.

23

Conformity

The tendency to change our perceptions, behaviours, or opinions, in order to be consistent with group/social norms.

24

Convergence

Technological, industrial cultural, and social changes in the ways media circulates within our culture.

25

Conversion

The process of private conformity

26

Cultural Capital

The comprehensive set of resources that we draw on to shape our everyday performances and actions.

27

3 Ways cultural capital is demonstrated

Embodied as in passively inherited.
Objectified as in property and
Institutionalized as in formal recognition.

28

Debriefing

A disclosure made following the study, explaining to the participants the purpose of the study, answering questions, resolving any negative feelings and reinforcing the scientific contribution.

29

Deep Acting

When people actually try to summon up emotions internally to feel an authentic connection with the emotional part they play

30

Defensive Practives

Efforts made to defend claims of having a particular persona/identiy

31

Definition of the Situation

Provides an overall sense of a particular setting, what activities happen there, what objects to take into account there, and what kind of people and roles exist there.

32

Demand Characteristics

The cues in the research setting that may inadvertently guide participants' behaviour

33

Depiction Fallacy

When we perceive photographs/media/graphic depictions as reality

34

Diegesis

Treating a fantasy world on its own terms and acting as though one is living in a "truth" or "reality" as considered valid by rules that apply to that interior world

35

Diffusion of Responsibility

When we assume that others will assume responsibility and help, and that we do not need to.

36

Digital Forgery

The use of software, like photoshop in altering/exaggerating certain features in photography

37

Discreditable Stigmas

Stigmas that can remain hidden/undetected ie; mental illness

38

Discrediting Stigmas

Physically visible stigmas ie; morbid obesity

39

Doublespeak

refers to words image makers design to camouflage and obscure a disagreeable reality- introduces ambiguity and avoids clear communication

40

Doxxing

occurs when someone gathers someone else's personal details through online scavenging and then posts that information publicly, documenting those persons against their will

41

Dramaturgical Circumspection

Involves focusing and taking the steps needed for the best performance to emerge out of the team

42

Dramaturgical Discipline

Team members being in control of all facets of performance possible during the show. Along with the team, it also encompasses keeping on top of and managing any disruptions to performance.

43

Dramaturgial Loyalty

Feeling obligated to fellow performers on the team, which encourages them to perform appropriately in the mutual performance and not ruin the show.

44

Dramaturgical perspective

analyzing people perceived social attributes, roles and values by examining people actions as if they were actors performing onstage for audiences.

45

Dramaturgical residency

Situations in which people reside in fictional characters and enterprises in a participatory vein, in addition to or other than living primarily in a nonfictional identity.

46

Dramaturgy

a theatrical term that refers to how theatrical professionals called dramaturges, adapt and stage artistic and literary works to best communicate a works meaning to an audience.

47

Dynamogenic Factors

The theory of competition holds that the bodily presence of another rider is a stimulus to the racer in arousing the competitive instinct; that another can thus be the means of releasing or freeing nervous energy.

48

Emotional Labour

The work required to present certain expected emotions while on the job - the performance of emotions that one may not actually feel, in order to do the job.

49

Empathy

The ability to understand other peoples perspectives and respond emotionally to other peoples experiences

50

Ethnographic research

Occurs when a researcher immerses themselves in the activities of a group that they study, or they observe them more passively.

51

Experience Economy

Brands and organizations producing stages experiences in order to attract consumers, mystifying the capitalist consumption

52

Experimenter Expectancy Effects

When an experimenter's expectations about the results of a study influence participants' behaviour, potentially altering the results of the study.

53

Explicit Attitudes

Attitudes that people state out loud (consciously)

54

Fabrications

Leading others to have a false belief about what is going on

55

Face

An image of self in terms of approved social attributes.. reputation in the eyes of others

56

Filter bubbles

Bubbles that form around use on social media because of information filtering in and out selectively so that all someone chooses to be exposed to is information and perspectives that they already favour, we allow information in that supports our views and filter out alternatives.

57

Folkways

More informal expectations that constitute taken for granted rules that guide behaviour in small groups

58

Footing

the perspective/point of view that one adopts within a particular frame.

59

Frames

Ways of organizing experience that govern the subjective meaning that people assign to social events

60

Front Stage

Where a person is "onstage" in front of an audience

61

Game stage

Meads second stage of the development of self. Marked by an ability to understand and assume the role of multiple others simultaneously and the ability to understand unspoken social rules.

62

Generalized other

meads description of the broad understanding of the organized community/social group to which an individual belongs

63

Groupthink

Refers to a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive on-group, when the members striving for unanimity overrides their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action

64

Groupthink

Refers to a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive on-group, when the members striving for unanimity overrides their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action

65

High Self Monitors

tend to change attitudes and behaviours to fit the situation

66

I

Meads concept of the creative spontaneous in the moment self. the I is the individual reaction to the ME and allows us to make our performances unique and our own.

67

Idealization

People acting as if they live up to idealized social standards.
Positive= good public persona
negative= downplaying non-idealized attributes

68

Identity Tourism

A term used to describe the actions of people who want to experience personas different than the ones they have access to in real life. Ie; performing as a different gender, race, sexuality

69

Idiocultures

The shared meanings, norms understandings and values that small groups create, share, and sustain that organize their activities.

70

Idiocultures

The shared meanings, norms understandings and values that small groups create, share, and sustain that organize their activities.

71

implicit attitudes

What people feel inside- often considered to be unconscious attitudes or attitudes that people are unwilling to admit to.

72

Individual Identification

Locking a subject who is under observation into a uniquely distinguishing identity through appearance, tone of voice mention of name or other person differentiation device

73

Individualist Culture

Members view the self as distinct, autonomous, self-contained, and endowed with unique attributes.

74

Informational Influence

The influence hat produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgements, and the person wants to be right.

75

Information Preserve

the set of facts about yourself to which an individual expects to control access while before others.

76

Informed consent

The deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research based on the information provided by the researcher.

77

Interaction Membrane

A protective filtering boundary metaphorically cutting off the encounter from the wider world, protecting its integrity and rewards.

78

Interaction Order

A loose coupling between interactional practices and social structure the workings of the interaction order can easily be viewed... as enabling conventions, in the sense of the ground rules for a game.

79

keys/Keying

The transitions between frames. Transforming one frame meaning into another often making them more or less real.

80

Kinship Selection

The theory that we are more likely to help those we are genetically related to.

81

Line

A perspective taken and performed in an interaction that also reflects a definition of the situation that a team sustains in public

82

Low-Self Monitors

Tend to have more stable attitudes and behaviours

83

Magic Circle

A conceptual space within which immersion and play can happen. This is a well debated, and highly challenged concept... For me, it is about an agreement to perform together

84

ME

Mead description of the part of the self that is the social self, rooted in our perception of how others interpret our behaviours

85

Mere Exposure

The greater exposure we have to something the more we like it

86

Meso- level Theories

Examining microsociological data to reach conclusions about larger social phenomena

87

Meta-theatre

Viewing organizations as theatres with many overlaying performances occurring at any one time

88

Microsociology

One-on-one small scale social interactions and processes- everyday life

89

Moral reasoning

A personality factor that describes the extent to which a persons willingness to help depends on larger moral standards rather than the persons needs and the expected consequences for them of helping.

90

Mores

Stronger than folkways dictates more like official norms in a society closer to laws

91

Mutually reinforcing Relation

Orderly interactions allow people to mutually reinforce each others performances, shaking hands provides bother parties with an understanding about the situation, what is expected and how to proceed together

92

Mystification

the process of covering/hiding undesirable or non-ideal aspects of a persona. It crafts a blind spot in perception that abets a thicket of unreality

93

Negotiated Order

How people adjust formal rules and individual affinities

94

Networked publics

Publics that are restructured by network technologies. they are simultaneously
1- the space constructed through network technologies and
2- the imagined community that emerges as a result of the intersection of people, technology and practice

95

New look model

Update to cognitive dissonance that argues that dissonance is caused b the consequences not the inconsistency alone

96

Normative influence

The influence that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant

97

Norm of Reciprocity

We should help those in need of assistance because they will help us in the future.

98

Norm of Social responsibility

We have and obligation to help those in need of assistance even if we have no expectation of later receiving help from them, especially if we see their need for help as caused by something beyond their control... food bank donations

99

Norms

Directions for how people should act, conceived of in types folkways and mores

100

Obedience

Behaviour produced by commands of authority figures

101

Observational Learing

A type of learning where attitudes and behaviours are influenced by watching other peoples attitudes and behaviours

102

Obstructive images

used with the goal of introducing some ambiguity to obscure an otherwise potentially critical interpretation of some subject

103

Operant conditioning

a type of learning where a behaviour that is rewarded increases, while a behaviour that is punished decreases

104

Participatory Culture

Culture in which fans and other consumers are invited to actively participate in the creation and circulation of new content

105

Perceived Behavioural Control

The extent to which a person believes themselves capable of successfully enacting a new behaviour.

106

Performance Teams

Individuals working together, coordinating their activities, in order to create and sustain performances for one another, and for the audience

107

Persona

A character, mask or social role that people display in the theatre to play a part and in social life as part of everyday activities

108

Persuasion

Communications designed to influence peoples attitudes

109

Play stage

Meads first stage of development of the self. marked by the ability to assume the attitude and behaviours of one specific role or individual at a time.

110

Pluralistic Ignorance

We look to each other's behaviour to determine how we should react in an emergency, and then assume that because others are not reacting, there is no emergency.

111

Principle Compatibility

In order to maximize the likelihood of attitudes and behaviours being correlated, they should be measured at the same level of specificity in terms of target, action, context and time.

112

Private Conformity

When people rethink their original views and potentially change their minds to match what the group thinks.

113

Prosocial Behaviour

Any behaviour that has the goal of helping another person.

114

Protective practives

Helping another person sustain the integrity of their performance

115

Public conformity

when peoples overt behaviours are in line with group norms

116

Rationalization of Symbols

An increasing organization and rationalization of signs (symbols, meanings)

117

Reinventive Institution

An organization that a person chooses to commit oneself to in order to be reinvented into an organizationally sponsored identity

118

Remedial Interchanges

Apologies and excuses for violations that acknowledge a breach and which request permission to repair and continue interaction

119

Repetitive Monotony

Enables people to live together in a normal state of predictability, in overwhelmingly familiar patterns of interaction that are routine at work and among family and friends

120

Repudiative Tactics

Actors use these to dissociate themselves from unwelcome attributions

121

Rituals

Prescriptive social traditions that have emotional and moral meaning for people that connect and integrate them as individuals into a larger social body. Encouraged by social norms.

122

Role Commitment

Sincerity toward playing a given role and learning to perform authentically and with genuine feeling in a particular status

123

Role Dispossession

The process through which new "recruits" are prevented from being who they were in the world they inhabited prior to entry

124

Role Distance

A distance between the self associated with a role, and you as a separate self from the self that must perform that role

125

Role Embracement

When people are attached to and identify with a role, they have the quality or capacity to play that role, and they are engaged in the role

126

Role Ineligible

Lacking or being seen as lacking the appropriate background to perform a role and be accepted by others in that role

127

Roles

how people perform obligations, behaviours, duties, and feelings associated with particular statuses.

128

Scaling

When the consequences of impressions are more significant when supported by someone in power (organizational-level actor)

129

Schemas

Specific background knowledge providing information about objects and ideas about the relationship between objects- social flash cards

130

Secondary Adjustments

Any set of habitual arrangements by which a member of an organization employs unauthorized means, or obtains unauthorized ends, or both, to get around the organization's assumptions as to what he should do and get and hence what he should be.

131

Secondary Impressions

The impressions left in the minds of the audience (may include calculated impressions)

132

Self-Awareness

A state of being aware of yourself as an object of your own thoughts. Looking in a mirror, or standing in front of a crowd increases your self-awareness

133

Self-Concept

A person's general beliefs about their own attributes, influences how we process information and what we notice/ pay attention to.

ex; if you consider your to be nerdy you will notice a startrek tshirt over a deigner

134

Self-Esteem

A person's overall evaluation of their attributes (their self-concept). Can be positive or negative

135

Self-Evalation Maintenance Model

Our self concept can be threatened if someone performs better than us on a task that is relevant to our self-esteem.

136

Self_fulfilling Prophecy

The process by which peoples expectations lead them to elicit behaviour that confirms these expectations

137

Self Handicapping

Behaving in ways that offer plausible attributions for poor performance, working to protect self-esteem and identity.

138

Self- Perception theory

People look at their own behaviours to determine their attitudes and beliefs

139

Self-Report or Survey Methods

Asking people questions about their thought, feelings and behaviours.

140

Self Standards Model

Update to cognitive Dissonance, and the new look model. That argues that people have standards of judgement against which they judge their behaviours. Can be internal (personal code unique to the individuals self concept) or external (social norms)

141

Set Descriptive term for staged elements in setting where performance occurs

Social Comparison Theory The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and attributes by comparing themselves to other people

142

Social establishment

A place, with fixed physical and aesthetic boundaries that regulates who can access what activities while guiding front and back stage performances

143

Social Facilitation

A tendency for the presence of other people as co-actors or observers ot enhance our performance on simple or well learned tasks but to reduce it on complex or unfamiliar tasks

144

Social Identity

The extent to which an attitude is associated with a salient group membership

145

Social identity theory

People take on the role of a group member only when they have come to identify with that group in-group membership and support increases self-esteem

146

Social Impact theory

The theory that states that people we are close to have more an impact on us than people who are more distant

147

Social Loafing

a tendency for individuals to reduce their efforts when working with others on group or collective tasks

148

Social Mindscape

Having a shared collective meaning that that performances are understandable to others around us because we share the same meaning

149

Social Order

Exists when stable, predictable, and repeated behaviours, interactions, and interrelationships exist among individuals within social institutions

150

Social Psychology

The scientific study of how the real, implied, or imagined presence of others influences a persons thoughts, feelings, and behaviours

151

Social Solidarity

An unspoken agreement amongst members of a group about the most orderly and predictable ways to live together, act together, and be together, based on a shared morality requiring mutual trust and respect

152

Sociological Miniatirism

People can analyze how larger social orders are composed of many intersecting tiny publics or organized small groups

Seen as; transcendent, representative, and generalizable

153

Sock puppet

A fake persona created to perform and pose as an online person

154

Type 1 sock puppet

Has a quality the poster lacks in real life, but fakes online, to give them some advantage

155

type 2 sock puppet

Specific characteristics are unimportant, as long as it allows the user to act as a "random Stranger"

basically a troll

156

Stage breach

Occurs because backstage information is readily available, and as people face the temptation of venting their backstage information through social media

157

Standing alone

If the dissenter has to stand alone they are more likely to conform

158

Status

A named position within a network of other statuses. they come with specific expectations, rights, obligations, behaviours, and duties.

159

Stereotype Avoidance

Actively attempting to behave in ways to counter known stereotypes

160

Stereotype Threat

occurs when members of a minority group (well any member of a group that experiences stereotypes) experience an apprehension that they may behave in a manner that confirms existing cultural stereotypes. This apprehension interferes with their ability to perform well.

161

Stigma Contests

When a group attempts to apply a stigma to an opponent, while attempting to evade the stigmas being thrown at them.

162

Strained Interaction

Occurs when the presence of a stigma injects tensions interactions

163

Subjective norms

Beliefs about whether others would support your engagement in a new behaviour

164

Supportive Interchanges

Used during the flow of interaction to establish and maintain relations between people.

165

Surface Acting

When people perform an emotion without actually trying to authentically feel that emotion internally.

166

Symbolic interactionalis

1) people act toward things based on the meaning that the things have for them
2) Meaning is derived from social interactions
3) meanings are handled through interpretation

167

Systematic Desisting

When people learn not to spoil occasions by acting out of order, occurring routinely in social life to avoid disrupting society

168

Team Collusion

The staging work that team members engage in to carry off performances

169

The Contact Hypothesis

Identifies how intergroup interaction can reduce prejudice and improve intergroup relations

170

The theory of planned behaviour

A theory that describes peoples behaviour and their intention to engage in that behaviour based on their attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioural control

171

Total Institutions

Institutions that seek to control all interactions by individual and resocialize them to an organizational ideal

172

Treatment of the Absent

How teams speak about those who are out of earshot

173

Trimming and programming

Steps involved in a new recruit being shaped and coded into an object that can be fed into the administrative machinery of the establishment, to be worked on smoothly by routine operations

174

Trust

A social mechanism that reduces life's uncertainty and complexity and allows people to feel that they can predict someone's future actions

175

Underlife

The underlife of an organization is made up of the secondary adjustments of the individual, combined with the secondary adjustments of other organizational members, their cumulative effects

176

Unreality

An artificial imitation or representation of the external form of an object, especially of a person

177

Values

Standards of judgement that people use to determine desirable goals and outcomes. Values help to inform what norms should exist in everyday life.

178

Affordances
4 characteristics

The characteristics of CMC environments that make possible various behaviours, such as making false claims about an identity that audiences cannot double-check:
• Persistence (online expressions and content are durable)
• Visibility (vast potential audience)
• Spreadability (content transfer is easy)
• Searchability (people can find things quickly and easily)