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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Deck (164):
1

Anthropology

-comparative study of common sense
-study of human nature, human society, and the human past
-makes the strange familiar, and the familiar strange

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Anthropology "study of humanity"

1. Human society
2. Human nature: it has two parts. Mind/matter
3. Human past (history)

3

Evolutionary Perspective

Addresses the question of human biological and cultural evolution.

4

Comparative Perspective

-Cross cultural comparison; being able to compare one culture to another culture.
-Being able to examine commonalities and differences between cultures; aviods making generalizations based on one social group.
-always us to create ethnographies

5

Holistic Perspective

-taking into a variety of factors; "looking at the big picture"; context
-can be represented through many sub disciplines (ex. Archaeology, linguistic, cultural, etc.)
-"more than a sum of its parts"

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Cultural anthropology

Study of human culture (globalization, gender and sexuality, urbanization)

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Archaeology

Study of past societies through the analysis of material remains

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Linguistic anthropology

Study of language in its relation to culture; in its social uses

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Biological/physical anthropology

Study of human origins and/or biological diversity

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Applied anthropology

Application of the techniques and theories of anthropology to solving real-world problems:
1. Forensic anthropology
2. Applied medical anthropology
3. Corporate and consumer anthropology

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Forensic anthropology

Subfield of anthropology that is often hands on; investigates recent to semi-recent crimes

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Applied medical anthropology

"Wanting to understand a type of disease in 2 places; determining patterns from both places"

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Corporate and consumer anthropology

Working for a company that tries to sell things to individuals

14

Culture

Is a process which is constantly being redefined; it is dynamic. The broader perspective of culture includes the aspect of learned behaviors, and the aspect that ideas that we aquire as members of society.

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Six characteristics of culture

1. Learned
2. Shared
3. Integrated
4. Adaptive
5. Symbolic
6. Culture organizes the way people think about the world

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Learned culture

Based on assumptions/inferences/conscious and unconscious observations.
-culture is not innate. Learned from birth instead.

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EnCULTUration

Process of learning one's culture through observation and formal instruction

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Rites of passage

A space in which people within culture get exposed to certain kinds of knowledge

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Ordeal

A period when the individual experiences pain/endurance. By inflicting pain toward the individual, this displays that society has some form of higher power, hence portrays the individual to be submissive to society

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Habitus

Habit that is ingrained, but you are not fully conscious of it; an everyday social activity rooted in habitual behavior

21

Shared culture

Culture is meant to circulate; culture is a system of meanings which places individuals in the same plane that enables us to interact with one a other and sets a sense of cohesion (togetherness).
Ex) we share norms and taboos; culture is negotiated/contested

22

Symbolic culture

Symbols; something that stands for something else.
Ex) flags

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Summarizing symbol

Sums up a whole range of different meanings through the expression of one image
Ex) cross (Christianity and crusades)

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Cultures organizes the way people think about the world

Naturalized concepts (ideas and behaviors that are deeply embedded that are usually regarded as universal or natural in a culture); it shapes our 'culture lenses,' our perspective of the world.
Ex) peace flag

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Summary of how culture is defined

It is learned, adaptive integrated, symbolic; it is a shared and negotiated system of meaning.

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Assimilation

This relates to the acceptance of another cultural system (beliefs/values); acceptance of surrendering one's own cultural values/system; the abandonment of one's own culture.
Ex) residential schools

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Acculturation

A process whereby a group adjust to the influence of dominant culture; a group may adopt some elements of the dominant culture while at the same time also maintaining their own identity/culture

28

Evolutionism

Lewis Henry Morgan proposed that culture/humanity go through these stages:
1. Savagery
2. Barbarism
3. Civilization

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Savagery and Barbarism

Were also subdivided into Lower, Middle, and Upper categories and were defined by technological features, in particular food acquisition techniques

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Civilization

Civilizations striking feature which is mostly kept for Europeans alone is the use of phonetic alphabet

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Ethnocentrism

Idea of superiority of one particular culture amongst other cultures

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Historical particularism

-study of cultures in their own historical contexts
-coined by Franz Boas; diversity is based on different histories

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Cultural relativism

FRANZ BOAS is the father of this; this means that every cultural system can only be judged against itself; doesn't make sense to compare cultural systems with a "standard" system.
-every culture must be understood under its own terms.

34

Functionalism

Idea that every belief/practice within a society serves a purpose; every belief and practice functions to meet basic human needs

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Structural functionalism

Theory that all cultural practices function to uphold unity and harmony within a society

36

Margaret Mead and her research on adolescence

"How does society and psychological aspect affect culture?"
-is adolescence something experienced in western Europe and North America?
-Mead determined that the adolescence stage is influenced by culture.
-Mead believed that culture influenced who people are.

37

Interpretive (symbolic) anthropology

(Opposite of cultural materialism)
-culture as a system of symbols: culture is determined through symbols
-multiple layes of meaning: each symbol can have different layers of meaning which can have different associations

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Dualism

Idea that there are two forces/energies/components to the human experience. These energies are seen in a state of struggle, conflict, or friction.
Ex) mind/body dualism

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Idealism

The mind is thought to have supremacy over the body; the mind is thought to be nore valuable. The privacy of thinking processes that don't pertain to the body.
Ex) "I think therefore I am"

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Materialism

Any activities in basic bodily needs would define human nature and has a critical impact on culture.

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Postmodernism

-"after moderism" and "against modernism"
-modernism: certain ideas articulated around knowledge
-the quest for "objective" knowledge if futile

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Reflexivity

Anthropologists/researchers acknowledge their bias and explains on what bias they recognize in terms of religion evidence, personal views, etc
-thinking about or reflecting on one's thinking

43

Ethnography

Collecting and analyzing info about culture (collecting info in the field)

44

Fieldwork

Living and interacting with the people or group under study
-an extended period of close involvement with the people whose language or way of life an anthropologist is interested. Anthropologists usually collect most of their data during this period.

45

Culture shock

Collection of physical and mental symptoms when we realize that our doxa doesn't work for us anymore

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Key informant

Anthropologists need this person; local person who has insight into local practices. A person who has knowledge about the cultural system.
-a person who has reflected on their own cultural heritage; someone with a different perspective of their culture

47

Judgement sample

Selecting certain groups in a way that ensures that it is a representative of these groups.
-targets certain categories within society

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Participant observation

Intensive engagement of everyday routines such as gaining knowledge of culture by watching someone complete a task while the individual also does the same activity.

49

Emic perspective

The perspective of inside; the native's point of view

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Etic perspective

The perspective from an outsider

51

Ethnocentrism

To evaluate other ways of life according to one's own standards.

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Cultural relativism

To evaluate people's way of life relative to its own standards

53

Norms

Rules (usually unwritten) for behavior assumed to be typical within a specific social or cultural group

54

Language

"A mode of communication which achieves common understanding"
-a system of sounds that when put together according to certain rules conveys meaning to its speakers

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Displacement

Allows us to make things up through language such as the projection of ourselves in past and present, fantasy, and lying.

56

Productivity

-lots of ways to create combination of words and recombination of sentences; the flexibility to make sentences out of words/concepts that are grammatically correct, but may not be coherent; gives us liberty to make meaningless sentences.
Ex) "Put this Babel fish in your ear."

57

Duality of Patterning

-language is patterned in two levels: level of sound + level of meaning. Language is essentially built upon different sounds and different meanings.
Ex) CAT and ACT

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Phonology

The study of sounds in human language

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Morphology

Study of how words are put together
Ex) "inactivity" in+act+iv+ity

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Syntax

Study of sentence structure

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Semantics

Study of meaning
Ex) metaphor "life is a journey"

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Metaphor

-making a connection between a particular concept from one domain of meaning to another concept with a different domain of meaning;
-a form of thought and language that asserts a meaningful link between two expressions from different semantic domains

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Nonverbal communication

-some gestures could have many meanings like doing a thumbs up
-does not have same meaning cross-culturally!

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Naive realism

Belief that people everywhere see the world in the same way; "common sense/common ground"

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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

-words and grammatical structures shape our reality
-language has an impact on our thought processes and perception, worldview/culture, and behavior

66

Politically correct language in North America

Ex) changing names/labels such as "women= chicks." If we were to ban the word 'chick' or any word (theoretically) that is demeaning to women, would this result to more dignity for women?
-No. Not necessarily, this would only proliferate more words against women.

67

Code-switching

"Code=language" "switching=switching between 2 or more dialects/languages according to the context in which one is speaking."
Ex) code-switching in the middle of a conversation

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Lingua france/pidgin

-brings together 2 elements of language
-simplified language that communities use to communicate when there is need to do so (trade or colonization)
-learned as a second language

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Creole

Learning pidgin as their first language
Ex) Shiac/Chiac
-not a product of assimilation. Rather better described as acculturation

70

Phonetics

Study and classification of speech sounds

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Phonemics

Study of the distribution of sound systems in human languages

72

Sociolinguistics

Study of language in relation to social factors, including differences of regional, class, and occupational dialect, gender differences, and bilingualism

73

Dialect

Particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group

74

SOCIALization

The social aspects of learning one's culture.
-process of being a member of the group through interacting with people to learn about taboos and inhibitions that is established by the group.

75

EnCULTUration

Process (formal or informal) by which children aquire the culture of their society
-could be learned through communication, imitation, observation, inference

76

Social birth

A social recognition of the transition to personhood.
-different from biological birth

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Rite of passage

A ritual that marks the transformation of an individual from one social position to another.
Involves 3 phases:
1. Separation
2. Liminality
3. Reintegration

78

Deviance

Disregarding/disobeying rules; behavious that violate cultural norms and expectations

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Personality

Relative integration of an individual's perceptions, motives, cognitions, and behavior within a sociocultural matrix.

80

Initiation rites

Rite of passage. 'Reborn' into a new role

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Economic systems

-economic system determines the way of life (ie culture and capital system); it develops values within society
-methods of allocating resources, and the production, distribution, consumption, amd exchange of goods and services.

82

Means of production

Marxian point of view: idea that the elite and capitalist owns the means of production. (Tools, skills, knowledge, technologies, organizations that are involved in the production of goods.

83

Generalized reciprocity

"Pure gift" giving a gift just because you want to
Ex) parents giving to their kids

84

Balanced reciprocity

A return of equal value which is also expected within a particular time frame.
Ex) Christmas card

85

Negative reciprocity

An expectation of an exchange for nothing
Ex) theft

86

Redistribution

-food and other goods collected by an organizer
-distributed to community members at large public gatherings- "a ritual redistribution"

87

Barter

-exchange of products in which one person gives one type of product in exchange for another.
-bypassing money
-having a surplus of something which can be used to exchange for something else.

88

Kinship system

Systems for determining relatives and relationships.
1. Bilateral descent
2. Unilateral descent

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Consanguines

People that are related by blood (based on descent/lineage)

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Affines

Relatives that are connected to you through marriage (spouse, in-law)

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Fictive kin

Type of kinship based on care/nurturance or other attributes

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Bilateral descent

Pattern of descent that involves both parents' relatives as our relatives
-usually found in industrialized and small-scale societies

93

Unilineal descent

A pattern that involves tracking descent of one lineage. Patrilineal and matrilineal.

94

Patrilineal descent

Only considers descent through the father; associated with males having a form of dominant/social role in society

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Matrilineal descent

Track descent through the mother

96

Patrilineal descent group

-all of the children (both male and female) of the male ancestor will be part of the patrilineal lineage
-in third generation, if there exists a female her children will not be part of the patrilineage (part of the husband's patrilineage)

97

Matriarchy

A pattern that assumes social power is vested in women; a rule by women; the rule of women over men

98

Matrilineal Puzzle

The tensions in the relationship between a woman's husband (not part of her lineage) and her brother (part of her lineage).

99

The matrilineal Na of southern China who live "without fathers or husbands"

-no marriage
-causal lovers
-no pater (social father)
-no genitor (biological father)
-no recognition of paternity
-problem: some parts of China favoured patrilineal descent. Lots of STDs

100

Incest taboo

Prohibitions to have sexual relations between people that are considered relatives (universal prohibition)

101

Four explanations for the incest taboo

1. Avoid inbreeding: fear/belief of producing weaker offspring
2. Familiarity breeds avoidance: being familiar with someone would produce a natural aversion
3. Preventing family disruption: Freud and competition inside of the family
4. Forming wider alliances: makes society possible. Within the taboo, people are able to make larger connections/expansion of kin members

102

Pater

Social father

103

Genitor

Biological father

104

Endogamy

Endo: marriage within a group
-marriage within the lineage

105

Exogamy

Exo: marriage outside the group
-"marriage is possible outside the lineage"

106

Parallel cousins

Child of the parent's same-sex sibling

107

Cross cousins

Child of the parent's opposite sibling
-considered ideal for marriage because they are not part of the lineage

108

Family

A (married) couple or other group of adult kinfolk who cooperate economically and in the upbringing of children, all or most of whom share a common dwelling

109

Nuclear family

(Parents + unmarried children)
A form of family found in industrialized and nomadic foragers

110

Single parent

(Single parent + children)

111

Extended family

-a family that expands generationally
-ex) grandparents, parents and children sharing a household or an elder parent and their unmarried children, married children, and their own children living together
-found in pastoral communities

112

Joint family

A family that extends horizontally (compromise of the same generation) - one generation, but expanded across
Ex) brother+sisters+children sharing the same household; same sex marriage and their children

113

Blended family

A family created by previously divorced or widowed people that remarry and bring along their children from their previous families

114

Monogamy

Marriage between one man and one woman (one woman and another woman etc)

115

Serial monogamy

Having more than one spouse over the course of your lifetime; having one spouse at a time

116

Polygamy

Multiple people in the marriage

117

Polygyny

A man having many wives.
-hard to achieve cause expensive
-occurs in communities with high density of women
-commonly seen due to factors of warfare

118

Polyandry

A woman that has many husbands
-usually occurs when population growth needs to be kept down.
-occurs in Tibet

119

The Toda of Southern India

-group marriage
-polyandry: woman is married to a man and any brothers that he may have. Arranged marriage
-unrelated men can also join the marriage
-pater is declared. Actually paternity not important

120

Levirate

Obligation of the dead man's next of kin (one of his brothers) to marry the widow
-first child (from the dead man's brother and widow) would be considered to be the dead man's first offspring
-child would continue the dead man's lineage

121

Sororate

A pattern where a widower (a man who loses his wife or she is barren) would marry the first wife's sister or cousin.
-first child born from the second marriage would be considered to be the offspring of the first wife

122

Same-sex marriage

Type of marriage that existed for many centuries
Ex) gay marriage, male mentorships among the Azande (Africa), and female marriage among the Nuer (Africa)

123

Matrilocal

After marriage the couple would live or near the wife's family. Associated with matrilineal descent.
-can create problems for a man who lives away from his sisters in matrilineal society

124

Patrilocal

Couple lives near the husband's relatives. Can sometimes lead to abuse from mother-in-law towards the husband's wife
-creates divided loyalty for the husband

125

Bilocal

Couple lives alternately with wife's relatives and husband's relatives. Degree of flexibility

126

Avunculocal

Couple would live near or with the brother. Found in matrilineal descent

127

Neolocal

Couple establishes a new (independent) household.

128

Bridewealth

Transfer of goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride (occasion of marriage).
-compensates for the loss of labour and child bearing capacities

129

Bride service

Occurs in societies with no accumulation of wealth. Fiance would perform labour for wife's family. Can last for many years and be done before and during marriage. Children do not belong to the man until he fufills his labour

130

Dowry

Gifts given by the wife's family to the married couple or to the husband's kin/family on the occasion of the couple's marriage.
-to ensure the wife has standing in the husband's family

131

Lineage

Lineal descent from an ancestor; ancestry or pedigree

132

Totem

Spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe

133

Race

-socially constructed
-a social grouping that "allegedly" shares a set of biological characteristics
-may be based on phenotype

134

Eugenics

Idea that one can control how people can reproduce

135

Ascribed status

Forced upon a person at birth ("a person born into this status")

136

Franz Boas and Critique of Race

He explained that every culture should be understood in its terms (own history) rather than being evaluated in its universal standards like its civilization.
-he viewed the concept of "savage, barbaric, civilization" as ethnocentrism

137

Primordialist ethnicity

Ethnicity is seen as stable, internalized, clearly bounded; it gives us one perspective

138

Constructivist ethnicity

Flexible view on ethnicity; emphasizing one aspect and deemphasizing another, if you have more than one descent, you choose which one to emphasize on depending on context

139

Ethnicity

A principle of social classification used to create groups based on selected cultural features such as language, religion, or dress

140

Stratified society

Society in which there is a permanent hierarchy or structured inequality whereby some members of society are accorded privileged access to wealthier occupation.

141

Achieved status

Social position that we choose or achieve on our own through effort and skills

142

Band

Simple type of society; does not strive for stratification (complex government). Values egalitarianism.

143

Tribe

No permanent form of leadership.
Ex) Big man

144

Uncentralized

("Stateless" or egalitarian societies). No centre of power found within these societies. We would expect bands and tribes to have no leader

145

Centralized

There exists a permanent figure of authority.
-chiefdoms (ranked societies)
-states (stratified societies)

146

Chiefdoms

Permanent figure of authority. Settlements are larger and there is more than one permanent community

147

4 attributes of state

1. Head of state. Ex) queen
2. Specialized bureaucratic departments
3. Formal systems of taxation
4. Monopoly over the use of force

148

Hegemony

Domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society, so that their imposed worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm

149

Governmentality

Way the state exercises control/governs the body of the population

150

Religion

Set of beliefs and practices around supernatural beings and supernatural forces and their connection with every day

151

Functions of religion

1. Help explain the world
2. Solace and healing
3. Social solidarity
4. Social control

152

Magic

Set of beliefs and practices aiming to control the natural world for specific purposes

153

Two forms of magic

1. Imitative magic: magic that operates on the principle of "like causes like"
Ex) boiling bark during birth creates a slimy substance
2. Contagious magic: magic that operates on the principles that positive and negative qualities can be transferred through proximity or contact. Ex) voodoo doll

154

Syncretism

Blending of 2 religious traditions to form a new one. Ex) Haitian voodoo

155

Witchcraft among the Azande

1. Not gender specific
2. Exercised from a distance
3. May not be intentional
4. Resides in body
5. Transmitted through patriline

156

Child witches in Africa: problem and possible

-children, usually boys, aged 0-15
-children who lost parents and live with other relatives
-behaviour considered "abnormal"
-confessions

157

Spirit possession

Belief that spirits can enter a person's body and take over their thoughts and actions.
Ex) people should not go to the edge of the woods. That's a place of "in betweeness"

158

Human rights

Set of rights that should be accorded to all human beings everywhere in the world

159

Rights vs. Culture

Culture is an obstacle to the respect of human rights

160

Rights to culture

All people have a universal human right to maintain their own distinct culture

161

Rights as culture

Law itself is a worldview of culture

162

Globalization

Intensification of global interconnectedness

163

Cultural hybridity

Cultural intermixing. People will appropriate new things as a part of one's culture

164

Cultural imperialism

Culture being more uniformed