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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (203):

What is rheumatoid arthritis?

Arthritis: inflammation of the joint
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects small joints of the hands and feet, as well as wrists, knees, ankles, and neck.

Brought on by an autoimmune process.


What are the psychological benefits associated with aerobic exercise?

Mood enhancement
Social benefits (feeling involved, self-efficacy)
Stress management


Contrast the effects of minor life events and chronic stress.

Most people can adapt to mildly stressful events; however, it may be difficult or impossible to adapt to highly stressful events, and already-stressed people may be unable to adapt to even moderate stressors


What does the health belief model state?

People will make changes if:
1. The person perceives a health threat
2. Believes that threat can be reduced.


Open sore in the lining of the stomach
a. Appendicitis
b. Dysentery
c. Kidney failure
d. Peptic ulcer

d. Peptic ulcer


What is metabolic syndrome?

Diagnosed when a person has three or more of the following problems:
Obesity centered around the waist
High blood pressure
Low levels of HDL
Difficulty metabolizing blood sugar
High levels of triglycerides


Described by Freud as a specific unconscious or psychological conflict producing physical disturbance.

Conversion hysteria


What factors are related to death in old age?

The elderly (over 65) are generally more prepared to face death than are the young. They may have thought about their death and made some initial preparations.

Poor mental health and reduce satisfaction with life predict decline among the elderly.


What is osteoarthritis?

Develops when the smooth lining of a joint, known as the articular cartilage, begins to crack or wear away because of overuse, injury, or other causes.


What is cognitive restructuring, and what is an example of its use?

Trains people to modify internal dialogue. "I am not weak; I can do this." Stuart Smalley


How does age affect risk of CHD?

Older you are, the more at risk you are for CHD


Types of coping with low-level pain?



What factors contribute to emotional responses in patients with chronic illness?

Patient can have an exaggeration of symptoms and their meaning, indiscriminate efforts to cope, an increasingly negative attitude, and worsening health.


Abnormal reflux in the esophagus
a. Gastroenteritis
b. Diarrhea
d. Dysentery



How do factors of discrimination affect poor health for certain populations, and which populations are affected?

Poor health habits
negative attitudes of social world
social disadvantage
lower-educational attainment
poor housing
little available employment
poor schools
poor neighborhoods
enduring sense of danger
Black Americans


What promotes resilience?

○ A sense of coherence about one's life
○ A sense of purpose of meaning in one's life
○ A sense of humor
○ Trust in others
○ A sense that life is worth living
○ Religious beliefs


What factors positively contribute to an individual's likelihood to engage in exercise?

Positive attitude
social support
boys more than girls
leaner people
easily accessible


The number of deaths due to a particular cause



Serious loss of cognitive ability beyond normal aging
a. Dementia
b. Polio
c. Huntington's disease
d. Multiple Sclerosis

a. Dementia


What are the most common causes of death in adolescence and young adulthood?

Unintentional injury, mainly involving automobiles
Homicide is the second leading cause of death overall
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in this age group, with cancer the fourth.


What is nociception and how are nerve fibers involved in this process?

Pain perception

The nerve fibers send pain impulses to the brain as well as surrounding areas


Describe Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome model and identify the criticisms of it.

All stressors, regardless of type, produced essentially the same pattern of physiological changes. They all led to an enlarged cortex, shrinking of the thymus and lymph glands, and ulceration of the stomach and duodenum.Criticisms:
1. Assigns a limited role to psychological factors.
2. Not all stressors produce the same biological responses.
3. Concerns whether exhaustion of physiological resources or their chronic activation is most implicated in stress; research suggests continued activation may be most important for accumulating damage to physiological systems, rather than exhaustion.
4. Selye assesses stress as an outcome, as the end point of the general adaptation syndrome. In fact, people experience many debilitating effects of stress after an event has ended and even in anticipation of its occurrence.


What glands are located at the top of the kidney and what are the functions?

Adrenal: hormone secreting. Releases catecholamines and corticosteriods


Skin rash can appear on the face
a. Lymphatic
b. Lupus
c. Ulcer
d. Smallpox

b. Lupus


Psychological Control's Effects

○ The belief that one can exert control over stressful situations improves emotional well-being, coping with a stressful event, health behaviors, physiological stress indicators such as immune functioning and cardiovascular risk factors, and health.
○ Basis for interventions to promote good health habits
○ Perceived control fosters physical activity, which may be one reason why it contributes to good health.


What are the seven habits of healthy people?

1. 7-8 hours of sleep each night.
2. 1-2 drinks of alcohol each day
3. daily exercise
4. Eat breakfast
5. No eating between meals
6. No more than 10% overweight
7. No smoking


The optimum state of health



What are the physical effects of AIDS?

Unusual cancers
Chronic diarrhea
Skeletal pain
Neurological involvement
Inability to concentrate
Profound dementia


Cerebral Palsy

Chronic, non progressive loss of muscle control


What does systolic blood pressure indicate?

The greatest force developed during contraction of the heart's ventricles.


What is Kubler-Ross’s Five Stage Theory?



Huntington's Disease

Genetic chronic physical and mental deterioration


What are the correlations between interpersonal communication and a patient’s prognosis?

Interpersonal correlations may affect treatment outcomes. Patient needs to feel loved, supported, taken care of. Not crisp efficiency with no personalization.


Example of a chronic stressor

Living in poverty or being in a very unhealthy relationship.


What effects does a diagnosis of Type I Diabetes have on the patient’s family?

Parents are critical to the successful management of the treatment regimen.
Parents may react in ways that undermine management efforts by treating the diabetic as a child and restrict activities beyond what is necessary


How to autonomic imbalances occur and how can they be measured?

One branch of the ANS dominates the other. Measured with heart rate variability.


What does the theory of planned behavior explain a health behavior to be a result of, and what are its components?

This is a direct result of a behavioral intervention.
1. Attitude
2. What do others think I should do?
3.Perception of if I am capable of making the change


Typically a disease of lifestyle, body may not produce enough insulin
a. Cardiovascular disease
b. Type 2 diabetes
c. Type 1 diabetes
d. Parkinson's disease

b. Type 2 diabetes


What effects does stress have on immunity?

Stress can cause increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity


What benefits are there to studying quality of life?

1. Documentation of how health disorders affect the activities of daily living can guide interventions designed to improve quality of life
2. Quality-of-life measures can help pinpoint exactly which problems are likely to emerge for patients with which diseases.
3. Quality of life measures assess the impact of treatments. For example, if a cancer treatment has mediocre survival rates and produces adverse side effects, the treatment may be more harmful than the disease.
4. Quality of life information can be used to compare therapies. For example, if two therapies produce approximately equivalent survival rates but one lowers quality of life substantially, the treatment that keeps the quality of life high is preferable.
5. Quality of life information can inform practitioners about care that will maximize long-term health with the highest quality of life possible.
High quality-of-life can reduce the rate of illness progression, symptoms experienced, and need for treatment.


Myocardial Infarction

Heart attack


What does diastolic pressure indicate?

The pressure of the arteries when the heart is relaxed; related to resistance of the blood vessels to blood flow.


Compare and contrast with problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping

Problem-focused coping involves attempts to do something constructive about the stressful conditions that are harming, threatening, or challenging as an individual
Emotion-focused coping involves efforts to regulate emotions experienced due to the stressful event.


An autoimmune disorder that falsely identifies and destroys cells in the pancreas
a. Type 1 diabetes
b. MS
c. Huntington's Disease
d. Polio

a. Type 1 diabetes


How does gender affect risk of CHD?

CHD is the leading killer of women in the US.
Onset of CHD occurs 10 years later in women than men, more women than men die of heart disease.
More dangerous for women
Risk goes up substantially after menopause


What criticisms have been made of Holmes and Rahe’s Stressful Life Events inventory?

When a person must adjust to a changing environment, the likelihood of stress increases.
1. Items on the list is vague
2. Events have preassigned point values so individual differences in how events are experienced are not taken into account
3. Inventories include both negative and positive events, as well as events that people choose. Sudden, negative, unexpected, and uncontrollable events are reliably more stressful.
4. Researchers typically do not assess whether stressful events have been successfully resolved, which mutes adverse effects.


A malignant lymphoma is a progressive, chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes
a. Hep C
b. Heart disease
c. Hep A
d. Hodgkin's disease

d. Hodgkin's disease


For women, this is a risk from several STDs
a. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease
b. Gynecologic cancer
c. Fertility
d. Amenorrhea

a. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease


Identify two aims of health psychologists

1. Prevention & treatment of illness
2. Health promotion & maintenance
3. Etiology
4. Healthcare policy/development of the healthcare system


What are risk factors for CHD?

High cholesterol
High blood pressure
Elevated levels of inflammation
Cigarette smoking
Little or no exercise
Being sedentary
Poor diet
High triglycerides
Little social support


How do physical pain and social pain relate?

They both use the same pain-related neurocircuitry that physical pain relies on.


What are the correlations between depression and CHD?

Negative emotions increase risk for metabolic syndrome
Depression affects the development, progression, and mortality from CHD.
Depression is also linked to risk factors for CHD, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, likelihood of a heart attack, heart failure, and mortality following coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Risk of suicide is higher as well


What are the types of care associated with terminal illness?

Hospice care
Palliative Care
Terminal Care


Disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung
a. Pleurisy
b. Tuberculosis
c. Lung cancer
d. Bronchial pneumonia

c. Lung cancer


Common condition when waste accumulate in the appendix
a. Gastroenteritis
b. Appendicitis
d. Hepatitis

b. Appendicitis


An inflammation of the mucosal membrane inside the bronchi of the lungs
a. Influenza
b. Strep throat
c. Common cold
d. Bronchitis

d. Bronchitis


What types of relationships are affected by chronic illness in a patient’s life, and how are they affected?

Negative responses from others
Impact on the family


What are stress carriers?

People in your environment who cause you special stress.


What risks are associated with sunscreen usage?

Not using sunscreen with enough SPF, not applying often enough; tanning is still considered healthy


What associations are made with having a high allostatic load?

Refers to the physiological costs of chronic exposure to the physiological changes that result from repeated or chronic stress. Can be thought of as accelerated aging in response to stress. This can lead to illness and increased risk of death. Damage is made works if people also cope with a high-fat diet, infrequent exercise, alcohol abuse, and smoking.


Give an overview of the Bogalusa Heart Study.

Began in 1973. Tracked the cardiovascular health of the town's residents for the next 39 years. Discovered that coronary artery disease begins in childhood. Designed a prevention program that teaches lesson in life: a healthy diet can make for a good heart and the right choices will yield a lifetime of health.


Acute stress paradigm

Short-term stressful events impact physiological, neuroendocrine and psychological responses has shown how individual differences contribute to stress and what factors ameliorate the experience of stress


What specific connections did Dunbar and Alexander make in contribution to the understanding of physical illnesses?

Patterns of personality to specific illnesses. Helped shape the belief that bodily disorders are caused by emotional conflicts.


What are situational factors in the context of health services?

• General context: political, demographic, economic, and social factors
• Medical Students' Disease: As they study each illness, many medical students imagine that they have it. Studying the symptoms leads the students to focus on their own fatigue and other internal states; as a consequence symptoms consistent with the illness under study seem to emerge.


What importance does family support have within psychological interventions for chronic illness?

Family support is especially important: It enhances the patient's physical and emotional functioning, it promotes adherence to treatment, and it can improve course of health disorders.

Family members can remind the patient about activities that need to be undertaken.

BUT, family members could make things worse by being relentlessly cheerful, which might cause the patient to feel as if he or she is unable to share distress or concerns.


What risk factors are associated with obesity?

lack of exercise


In alcohol treatment programs, what are the typical steps of treatment?

Short-term, intensive inpatient treatment
Continuing treatment on an outpatient basis
Use of CBT (self-monitoring, motivational enhancements, medications for blocking the alcohol-brain interactions that may contribute to alcoholism)


What are the major ways to apply problem-focused coping

• People anticipate potential stressors and act in advance, either to prevent them or to reduce their impact.
• Requires:
• Ability to anticipate or detect potential stressors
• Coping skills for managing them
• Self-regulatory skills (ways that people control, direct, and correct their actions as they attempt to counter stressful events
• Ability to distance oneself from negative experiences
• Framing appraisals of stressors positively


What is message framing?

Framing a health message in positive or negative terms.


What are the typical recommendations for weekly exercise?

30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity at least five days a week for a total of 150 minutes


Control-enhancing interventions

• These interventions use information, relaxation, and cognitive-behavioral techniques, such as learning to think differently about the unpleasant sensations of a procedure, to reduce anxiety, improve coping, and promote recovery.
• People who desire control especially benefit from control-based interventions.
• Control could be aversive if it gives people more responsibility than they want.


How does age affect the likelihood of using health services?

The very young and the elderly use health services more frequently.


What understandings of death are associated with stages of children’s lives?

Up to age 5: Death is a great sleep
Ages 5-9: Knows death is finite but doesn't understand biological aspects, more magical or supernatural persons take them away
Ages 9-10: Dead is universal and inevitable and understand burial and cremation, knows the body decomposes, and the person will not return.



Severe allergic reaction


A balance among physical, mental, and social well-being



What are the major ways to apply emotional-approach coping

• Clarifying, focusing on, and working through the emotions experienced in response to a stressor
• Improves adjustment to many chronic conditions, including chronic pain, and medical conditions such as pregnancy and breast cancer.
• Coping via emotional approach appears to be especially beneficial for women.
• It may be soothing and beneficially affect stress regulatory systems
• It leads people to affirm important aspects of their identity, which leads to health benefits


What criticisms exist of Kubler-Ross’s Five Stage Theory?

Patients do not go through the five stages in any order
Does not fully acknowledge the importance of anxiety.
Patients fear uncontrollable pain



Lots of studies taken together and analyzed


Compare and contrast acute pain and chronic pain.

Acute pain: Usually results from an injury, lasts six months or longer and usually disappears when the tissue damage is repaired.
Chronic pain: Begins with acute pain but goes on for six months or more. Doesn't decrease with treatment and passage of time.


Alcoholic drinking is often used by individuals for what purposes?

social isolation


Types of coping with chronic pain?

Relaxation techniques
Slow breathing


Lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle
a. Myocardial Infarction
b. Heart Attack
c. Ischemia
d. Angina pectoris

c. Ischemia


What is negative affectivity linked to?

• Related to poor health, including chronic conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, chronic pain, and coronary artery disease.
• Also related to all-cause mortality• Psychological Distress involving depression, anger, hostility, and anxiety may form the core of a "disease-prone personality" That predisposes people high in negative effect on illness.
• Negative affectivity links to chronic illness by negative affectivity related to elevated levels of stress indicators such as cortisol, inflammation, and risk factors for coronary heart disease. A second link is poor health habits.


What are the three typical goals related to hospital functioning, and what do each of them involve? (Hint: they all start with the same letter.)

• Cure: Physician's responsibility through performing any treatment action that has the potential to restore patients to good health, that is, to cure them.
• Care: Orientation of the nursing staff. Involves the humanitarian side of medicine and is to do as much possible to keep the patient's emotional and physical state in balance
• Core: Ensuring the smooth functioning of the system and the flow of resources, services, and personnel


What is an example of self-reinforcement?

(systematically rewarding oneself)

I can buy a new purse once I lose 10 pounds.


How does classical conditioning work?

Unconditioned stimulus results in the unconditioned result.Pair the unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus to result in the unconditioned response.The conditioned stimulus will then result in the unconditioned response.


What is patient depersonalization and what are its effects?

• Nonperson treatment - when you treat the illness and not the person
• Can confuse or alarm the nonparticipating but physically present patient
• Provides emotional protection for the provider


What factors positively contribute to an individual's ability to discontinue smoking?

reorienting attention away from smoking-related cues, both internal and in the environment

Stages of change model (precontemplation --> contemplation --> action -->cessation)
Social support
positive stress management


What types of social supports are there?

• Tangible assistance
• Informational support
• Emotional support
• Invisible support


Early symptoms include numbness, double vision, dragging of feet, speech difficulties
a. CVD
b. Multiple Sclerosis
c. Cerebral Palsy
d. Parkinson's disease

b. Multiple Sclerosis


What are advantages and disadvantages of using internet resources for obtaining health care information?

• Advantages: Lots of information available and people can use some of this information to treat themselves
• Disadvantages: Lots of information is inaccurate and may make the illness worse


Similar to diarrhea except also has mucus, pus, and blood
a. Diarrhea
b. Gastroenteritis
d. Dysentery

d. Dysentery


What health implications exist for diabetes?

Heart disease and stroke
Eye issues - blindness
Damage to blood vessels, leading to circulation problems
Kidney failure
Diabetic neuropathy (mild to severe forms of nerve damage)
Pain sensation is compromised


How does socioeconomic status affect the likelihood of using health services?

• Lower SES use medical services less than do more affluent social classes


What is HIV?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus


What requirements must be met for an individual to be admitted to hospice?

Individual must be entitled to Part A of Medicare
Certified as being terminally ill by a physician
Having a prognosis of 6 months or less


Heart's delivery of oxygen-rich blood is inadequate to meet the body's need
a. Arrhythmia
b. Myocardial infarction
c. Angina pectoris
d. Congestive heart failure

d. Congestive heart failure


What are common characteristics for those who experience chronic pain?

Depression, anxiety, and angerMaladaptive coping strategies such as catastrophizing their illness, engaging in wishful thinking, or withdrawing socially


Most likely to happen if arterial walls have been damaged or roughened due to cholesterol
a. Platelets
b. Lymphoblasts
c. Monoblasts
d. Thromboses

d. Thromboses


Inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small intestine
a. Gastroenteritis
b. Dysentery
c. Diarrhea
d. Ulcer

a. Gastroenteritis


Theory of planned behavior

Direct result of a behavioral intention


What factors have contributed to the recent rise in obesity?

Social Status and culture
Highly neurotic, extroversion, and impulsive
social networks
siblings and friends who are obese


What are illness representations or schemas?

Commonsense models of illness.
1. Identity
2. Cause
3. Timelines
4. Consequences
5. Control/cure
6. Coherence


What types of messages are shown to be most effective for encouraging health behaviors?

Fear Appeal; Message framing that stresses health benefits


What are the most common causes of death in infancy and childhood?

Infants: SIDS
Children under 15
1. Accidents (40% of all deaths in this group)
Cancer, especially leukemia


Resilience definition

Psychological resources enable people to confront and cope with stressors. They also help them bounce back from bad experiences and adapt flexibly to the changing demands of stressful situations. This is called resilience.


What are the effects of smoking?

Lung cancer
chronic bronchitis
respiratory disorders
lower birth weight in offspring
retarded fetal development
increases risk of erectile dysfunction by 50%


Chronic, non-progressive disorder marked by lack of muscle control
a. Cerebral palsy
b. Parkinson's disease
c. Huntington's disease
d. Multiple sclerosis

a. Cerebral palsy


What is self-determination theory?

People are actively motivated to change their behavior. (I will do this because I want to do this)


The number of cases of a disease that exist at a given point in time



What are the most beneficial social supports?

• A person in whom you can confide, particularly on a daily basis
• Marriage, especially a satisfying marriage
• Family support
• Community support


What is the medical term for a heart attack and what happens when one occurs?

Myocardial infarction. Clot blocks flow of blood to heart.


What risk factors are associated with hypertension?

Childhood temperament promotes central weight gain in adolescence
Genetic factors play a role
Emotional factors such as depression, hostility, and frequent experiences of intense arousal
Family environment that fosters chronic anger
Low SES in childhood and adulthood
Negative social interactions
Extensive family responsibilities



Associated with tend-and-befriend stress response


Deposits of cholesterol on the arterial walls that form plaques that narrow arteries
a. Myocardial infarction
b. CHF
c. Angina pectoris
d. Atherosclerosis

d. Atherosclerosis


What emotional responses are common when a patient is diagnosed with chronic illness and what are the differences between patients' emotional responses to chronic illness?

Denial: Patients may act as if the health disorder is not severe, it will go away, or will have few long-term implications.

Anxiety: Patients are overwhelmed by potential changes in their lives. Anxiety is high when waiting for test results, receiving diagnoses, awaiting invasive medical procedures, and anticipating or experiencing adverse side effects of treatment

Depression: Depression exacerbates the course of several chronic disorders, most notably coronary heart disease. Depression complicates treatment adherence and medical decision making


What do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems do for our body?

Sympathetic: emotionsParasympathetic: Automatic processes (heart beating, lungs breathing, etc)


Several forms of this, means "inflammation of the liver"
a. Hepatitis
b. Ulcer
c. Gastroenteritis
d. Dysentery

a. Hepatitis


Explain the theoretical model of behavioral change.

Stages of change and suggests treatments and modifications at each stage.
1. Precontemplation
2. Contemplation
3. Preparation
4. Action
5. Maintenance


Caused by viruses, transmitted through food and water
a. Hep A
b. Appendicitis
c. Hep B
d. Ulcer

a. Hep A


What are the three models of illness most people have, and what are the overviews of each?

• Acute illness: Believed to be caused by specific viral or bacterial agents and is short in duration, with no long-term consequences. Example is the flu.
• Chronic illness: Believed to be caused by multiple factors, including health habits, and is long in duration, often with severe consequences. An example is heart disease
• Cyclic illness: Marked by alternating periods during which there are either no symptoms or many symptoms. An example is herpes.


What is another term for a heart attack?
a. Myocardial infarction
b. Congestive Heart Failure
c. Angina pectoris
d. Ischemia

a. Myocardial infarction


What are common reactions for patients diagnosed with terminal illness?

Concerns with unresolved business
Kubler-Ross's Five Stage Theory


What role do volunteers play in hospice care?

Giving the caregiver some time off


What is a contingency contract?

A contract you make with someone else, detailing punishments and rewards in terms of your health goals.


Which factors are correlated with higher adherence, and which are correlated with lower adherence?

• Highest
○ The patient receives a clear, jargon-free explanation of the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment recommendations.
○ The patient has been asked to repeat the instructions
○ The instructions are written down
○ Unclear recommendations are singled out and clarified
○ Instructions are repeated more than once.
• Lower
○ Patient's lifestyle is not conducive to the recommendations
○The goals are too big (not breaking down the goals into manageable bites)


What hormones are released by the parasympathetic system in a fight or flight reaction?

Catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine


Stressful Life Events

Substantial adjustment to the environment that leads to high stress


What health issues can obesity cause?

High blood pressure
chronic pain
back issues
joint issues
risk for heart attack
coronary heart disease


What are the sleep stages, what are the waves associated with each, and what main purposes do each of them have?

Stage 1: Theta waves, lightest stage of sleep
Stage 2: Sleep spindles, large K-complex waves, Body temperature drops, breathing and heart rate even out
Stages 3 & 4: Deep sleep; delta waves, blood pressure falls, immune system strengthens during these stages.
REM Sleep: Beta waves, vivid dreams, consolidating memories


What are the types of coping styles?



What is the goal of threatening messages within health promotion and what is the actual result of them?

Scare the person into stopping the behavior. Results in people become more defensive.


What is a cognitive-behavioral intervention, and how can it be used to assist an individual in having a healthier lifestyle?

Helps to combat maladaptive eating behavior;CBT treats problems and boosts happiness by modifying dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and thoughts. CBT focuses on solutions, encouraging patients to challenge distorted cognitions and change destructive patterns of behavior.


What effects do acquired immunodeficiency syndromes have on a body?

Body attacks itself. Lupus, MS, Lymphoma, arthritis


Who was Robert Wadlow and what was his unique condition attributed to?

Robert Wadlow - extreme growth. Tallest Man in the World.Misfuncting of the pituitary gland.


How does gender affect the likelihood of using health services?

Women use medical services more than men do.


What are the key elements of commonsense models of illness?

• Identity: A label, for an illness. Usually its name
.• Causes: Factors that the person believes gave rise to the illness
• Consequences: Symptoms of the illness, treatments, and implications for quality of life
• Timeline: the length of time the illness is expected to last
• Control/cure: identifies whether the person believes the illness can be managed or cured through appropriate actions and treatments
• Coherence: How well these beliefs hang together in a cogent representation of the disorder


What roles do diet and activity level play in cardiac rehabilitation?

Goals of rehabilitation are to produce relief from symptoms, reduce the severity of the disease, and promote psychological and social adjustment.

Successful cardiac rehabilitation depends critically on the patient's active participation and commitment.

Exercise improves prognosis and may be especially important for people low in SES with or at risk for CHD.


What are modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with biological factors associated with CVD and what are some examples?

(Cardiovascular disease)
Genetic propensity for high cholesterol
high blood pressure


What factors associated are associated with good provider-patient communication?

Make sure the patient understands and shares in decision making
Teach skills that can be learned easily and incorporated into routines easily
Simple courtesy
Warm nonverbal communication


What does activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis result in?


Excessive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine; immunosuppressive effects; poor sleep quality


What are chronic illnesses characterized by, and what are some common examples in industrialized countries?

Illnesses that are lifetime illnesses. Can be degenerative. Parkinson's, Polio, MS, etc...


Often idiopathic-meaning no specific cause can be identified
a. Parkinson's Disease
b. Epilepsy
c. Cerebral Palsy
d. Huntington's Disease

b. Epilepsy


What interventions are developed to help people cope successfully with stress?

• Mindfulness Meditation and Acceptance/Commitment Therapy
• Expressive writing
• Self-Affirmation
• Relaxation Training
• Coping Skills Training
• Stress Management


Describe the caregiving role for chronically ill patients.

Women more commonly become caregivers than men. The typical caregiver is a woman in her 60s caring for an elderly spouse, but caregivers also provide help for their own parents and for disabled children.

Caregiving can strain the relationship.

Caregivers may need interventions.

Caregivers who were able to communicate online with other family members, a therapist, and an online discussion group found the services to be very valuable, suggesting that Internet interventions have promise.

Caregiving can be positive when relationships deepen and the caregiver and recipient become closer, deriving meaning in their relationship.


What symptoms are associated with Type I Diabetes?

Frequent urination
Unusual thirst
Excessive fluid consumption
Weight loss
Uncontrollable craving for food (especially sweets)


Identify the different types of delay behavior associated with health services.

Delay behavior - when a person lives with one or more potentially serious symptoms for months without seeking care
• Appraisal delay: The time it takes an individual to decide that a symptom is serious
• Illness delay: The time between the recognition that a symptom implies an illness and the decision to seek treatment
• Behavioral delay: The time between deciding to seek treatment and actually doing so
• Medical delay: The time that elapses between the person's calling for an appointment and his or her receiving appropriate medical care.


What are the advantages and disadvantages to using painkillers such as morphine?

Advantages: works
Disadvantages: Addictive, patients may build up a tolerance


Daily Stress

Minor stressful events (hassles) which produce psychological distress, reports of physical symptoms and enhanced use of health care services.


Rheumatic Fever

Strep throat gone bad, bacterial infection moved to the heart


Progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia
a. Multiple sclerosis
b. Huntington's disease
c. Parkinson's disease
d. Epilepsy

c. Parkinson's disease


What happens when the body attacks its own body tissues

Autoimmunity disorder


Angina Pectoris

Chest pain


What is the subtype(s) of chronic pain and what are the characteristics?

Chronic benign pain: Persists for six months or longer and is relatively unresponsive to treatment. Pain varies in severity and may involve any of several muscle groups. (ex. Low back pain)

Chronic progressive pain: Persists longer than six months and increases in severity over time. (ex, rheumatoid arthritis)


In the documentary “The Marathon Challenge”:A) What were the health benefits the runners experienced?B) How was the aerobic fitness of the runners’ measured?

A: Weight loss, better mental health
B. heart rate, breathing rate,


What coping strategies are associated with chronic illness, and which are most effective?

Support/direct problem solving (I wanted to find out more about the situation)
Distancing (I didn't let it get to me)
Positive focus (I came out of the experience better than I went in)
Cognitive escape/avoidance (I wished that the situation would go away)
Behavioral escape/avoidance (efforts to avoid the situation by eating, drinking, or sleeping)

Most effective coping strategies:
Active coping predicts good adjustment
Flexible copers may cope better than do people who engage in a predominant coping style.


What types of symptoms are likely to result in an individual seeking treatment?

• Individual differences
• Attentional differences
• Situational factors
• Stress


Irregular beatings of the heart
a. Angina pectoris
b. Arrhythmia
c. Congestive heart failure
d. Myocardial infarction

b. Arrhythmia


Women are more at risk, can cause pain on urination
a. Diarrhea
b. Kidney failure
c. Hepatitis
d. Urinary tract infection

d. Urinary tract infection


What are the recent trends within Utah for tobacco and e-cigarette usages?

Tobacco use has gone down e-cigarette use has gone up in adolescents.


What stress response is most attributed to females, and how does it work?

Tend and befriend. Turn to others in stress and take care of off-spring


What would a researcher be studying if she were attempting to identify the frequency, distribution, and causes of an infectious disease?



What workplace factors relate to increased risk of CHD?

Desk job
Lack of time to eat properly


Explain the difference between prospective and retrospective research

Research that looks forward and anticipates changes vs. research that takes historical information to create a theory about the illness.


What are autoimmune diseases?

The immune system attacks the body's own tissues, falsely identifying them as invaders


Describe the avoidant coping style

• Minimizing
• Avoider may cope well with a trip to the dentist but cope poorly with ongoing job stress
• Deals most effectively with short-term threats
• People who cope with avoidance may not make enough cognitive and emotional efforts to anticipate and manage long-term threats


Self-esteem & Coping

• High self-esteem is tied to effective coping• Most protective at low levels of stress
• At higher levels of stress, the stressful events themselves can overwhelm the benefits of self-esteem.


What care settings are more preferred for terminally ill patients?

Hospice Care
Home Care


What are the factors that relate to a patient’s likelihood of adherence?

• Time
• Money
• Distracting problems at home, such as instability and conflict


What methods can providers utilize to improve adherence?

Provide patients with information, listen, encourage, build trust, enhance recallHelp patients believe in their treatment and become motivated to adhere to it

Helping patients to overcome any practical barriers, such as cost or time.ListenAsk the patient to repeat

Keep the instructions as simple as possibleUse short words and short sentences

Make advice detailed, specific, and concrete

Adopt a friendly rather than businesslike attitude

Avoid medical jargon


How does HIV lead to a diagnosis of AIDS?

HIV attacks the helper T cells and macrophages (kill-the-infection-cells) of the immune system. Period between contracting the virus and developing symptoms of AIDS is variable.

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)


What factors are associated with successful adjustment to chronic illness?

Perception they have some control over what happens to them
Hold positive expectations about the future
Positive view of themselves.


What factors contribute to faulty communication between provider and patient?

Use of jargon
Baby talk
Nonperson treatment
Stereotypes of patients


Compare risk factors for CHD with risk factors for stroke.

Both include:
High blood pressure
Heart disease
Cigarette smoking
High red blood cell count
Transient ischemic attacks (little strokes that produce temporary symptoms)
Increases with age


Viral disease that attacks the spinal nerves
a. Parkinson's disease
b. Polio
c. Epilepsy
d. Paraplegia

b. Polio


Structural imaging technology



What is Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)?

General term that refers to illnesses caused by atherosclerosis (the narrowing of the coronary arteries).


What advantages are there is studying health issues from a biopsychosocial perspective?

Takes into account that mind and body together determine health and wellness.


What is a social support?

Information from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of communication and mutual obligations.


Negative Affectivity Definition

A pervasive negative mood marked by anxiety, depression, and hostility. People high in negative affectivity (also called neuroticism) express distress, discomfort, and dissatisfaction in many situations


Psychological Control Definition

The belief that one can determine one's own behavior, influence one's environment, and bring about desired outcomes.


Allostatic load

Physiological systems within the body fluctuate to meet demands of stress



Narrowing of arteries due to buildup of plaque


What is creative nonadherence?

Modifying and supplementing a prescribed treatment regimen.
○ A poor patient may change the dosage level to make the medicine last as long as possible or may keep some medicine under reserve.
○ Patients supplement the treatment regimen with over-the-counter preparations to treat symptoms they think were ignored by the physician.


Attentive to biological, psychological, and social needs

Biopsychosocial model of health


Hereditary disorder of CNS
a. Epilepsy
b. Huntington's Disease
c. Multiple Sclerosis
d. Paraplegia

b. Huntington's Disease


What are health promotions and what do they usually capitalize on?

Good health or wellness is a personal and collective achievement.


Describe the approach coping style

• More successful than avoidant coping and it is tied to better mental and physical health outcomes
• The vigilant coper may fret over the visit to the dentist but take active efforts to reduce job stress
• Most effective with long-term stress


Fight or Flight

Physiological response associated with life or death situations


What do studies of chronic stress in vulnerable populations show?

Vulnerable populations (children, elderly, low SES) show little adaptation to chronic stressors.


What is the subtype(s) of acute pain and what are the characteristics?

Recurrent acute painIntermittent episodes that are acute in character but chronic inasmuch as the condition recurs for more than six months (ex. migraines, TMJ)


Where and how an illness started and spread



Results from injury to the spinal cord
a. Epilepsy
b. Polio
c. Paraplegia
d. Dementia

c. Paraplegia


What potential changes can be made on genetic makeup by stress?

Negative attitudelow immune responses


What are the recommendations for fat content in male and female bodies?

20-27% in women
15-22% in men


What is quality of life?

Quality of life has several components - physical functioning, psychological status, social functioning, and disease- or treatment-related symptoms. Researchers focus on how much the disease and its treatment interfere with the activities of daily living, such as sleeping, eating, going to work, and engaging in recreational activities.


Assumes that psychological and social processes are largely irrelevant to the disease process

Biomedical model


What are the differences between primary appraisal and secondary appraisal?

Psychological Appraisal
Primary appraisal processes: events may be perceived as positive, neutral, or negative in their consequences
Negative events further appraised for possibly harm, threat, or challenge.
Secondary appraisal processes: assessment of one's coping abilities and whether they are sufficient to meet the harm, threat, and challenge of an event.


Below-normal numbers of red blood cells
a. Clot
b. Anemia
c. Plasma
d. Blood Pressure

b. Anemia


Type II Diabetes

Disease of lifestyle, body either doesn't produce enough insulin or body is resistant to insulin


How does self-efficacy affect a person's ability to change a health behavior?

If I don't think I can do it, it's not worth even trying to do it.


Hep C

Commonly caused by blood transfusions. "inflammation of the liver"


What is a fear appeal and what are the pros/cons?

This approach assumes that if people are afraid that a particular habit is hurting their health, they will change their behavior to reduce their fear.Persuasive messages that elicit too much fear may actually undermine health behavior change.