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Flashcards in final exam Deck (80):
1

rectangularization

graph is getting rectangular

2

How does age identity change?

age identity is younger than chronological age (happening as people are living longer)

3

changes in vision and hearing

difficulty in viewing close objects
accommodation of the eye
reduced blood supply decreases visual field (close objects)
hearing starts to decline at age 40, high-pitched sounds lost first

4

accommodation of the eye

your ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina is decreasing
sharp decline between 40-59

5

most common issues in middle adulthood

high blood pressure
high cholesterol
cardiovascular disease

6

metabolic syndrome (middle adulthood)

hypertension
obesity
insulin resistance

7

when does lung capacity decrease?

age 55

8

sleep in middle adulthood

wakeful periods are more common
sleep disordered breathing
restless leg syndrome

9

menopause symptoms

hot flashes
nausea
fatigue
rapid heartbeat

10

when does menopause happen?

late 40s, early 50s

11

treatments for menopause

controversial
hormone replacement therapy (mix of estrogen and progesterone)
has some side effects

12

crystallized intelligence

accumulated info and verbal skills
increases over time

13

fluid intelligence

ability to reason abstractly
peaks and decreases around early adulthood

14

decrease over time (intelligence)

inductive reasoning
spatial orientation
perceptual speed
numeric facility
verbal comprehension
verbal memory

15

intelligence — experience

experience is still more important for problem-solving

16

memory changes in middle adulthood

lists are difficult to remember, but commonly used

17

effect of religion

positively linked to health
positively linked to moderating blood pressure and hypertension
helps you connect to the community
helps you feel connected to beliefs
helps mental health: lower rates of depression, better mental health overall

18

Erikson's stage — middle adulthood

generativity vs stagnation

19

Levinson's seasons of a man's life

young vs old
destructive vs constructive
masculine vs feminine
attached to others vs being separated from others

20

midlife crises

normally over-exaggerated
triggered by a life event

21

Big 5 personality factors

openness
conscientiousness
extraversion
agreeableness
neuroticism

22

overall personality trends — middle adulthood

some things are still changing, even until adulthood
some things stay the same
people become more adept at working with their environment to suit their personality

23

responses to children leaving the home

sense of relief is normal
empty-nest syndrome not a normal response (decrease in marital satisfaction after kids leave)
refilling of empty nest is normal
negative reaction to loss of privacy (when kids come home)

24

late adulthood motto

"use it or lose it"
similarities of disease tend to be chronic or progressive

25

factors affecting life expectancy

ethnicity
gender
socioeconomic status
access to healthcare
overall health conditions within the country
diet
low-stress lifestyle
caring community
physical activity
spirituality

26

arthritis

inflammation of joints
pain, stiffness, movement issues
affects a lot of people in late adulthood

27

osteoperosis

extensive loss of bone tissue
leads to walking with a stoop
more common in late adulthood

28

evolutionary theory of aging

reproduction occurs before the issues of adulthood happen—doesn't pass on to older generations

29

cellular clock theory of aging

telomeres getting shorter
cells can only divide 70 or 80 times

30

free radical theory of aging

unstable oxygen molecules break off and bounce around, damaging DNA and other cells

31

mitochondrial theory of aging

decay of mitochondria

32

hormonal stress theory of aging

over time, cortisol breaks your body down—your body's resistance lowers over time, which increases you chance of disease

33

changes in brain structure (late adulthood)

weight and volume decrease due to shrinking neurons
lowers the number of synapses and reduces length of axons
you normally lose about 5-10% of the weight of your brain

34

neurogenesis

creating new neurons

35

dendrite growth

rewires to compensate for losses

36

decrease in lateralization

form of brain adaptation

37

cataracts

thickening lens of the eye
vision becomes cloudy

38

glaucoma

damage to the optic nerve from buildup of fluid and pressure

39

macular degenration

deterioration of the macula of the retina
affects focal center of the visual field

40

invisible epidemic

substance abuse

41

cognitive mechanics

hardware, neurophysiology of the brain
affects the speed and accuracy of process
(decreases)

42

cognitive pragmatics

software, reading and writing, language comprehension, professional skills
(increases or remains constant)

43

explicit memory

conscious recollection
- episodic (facts about your life)
- semantic (knowledge of the world)

44

implicit memory

not conscious
- ex: driving, things you do every day
- less likely to decrease with age

45

source memory

ability to remember where you learned something

46

prospective memory

remembering to do something in the future

47

working memory & perceptual speed

tend to decline with age

48

belief in memory

if you believe you can still learn, you will be able to learn

49

wisdom

high levels are rare
most people that have high levels of wisdom are late teens and early adults
personality factors are more important than age

50

tip of the tongue phenomenon

you know you know the word, but it isn't coming

51

language decline

slower information processing because your speed and working memory is leading to a loss of information processing

52

retirement

10-15% of your life
7 million return to work — 1/3 for financial reasons
older age group tends to make best employees

53

mental health in late adulthood

depression less common, but still happens

54

dementia

deterioration of mental functioning
delusions, loss of knowing where you are

55

alzheimers

chronic and progressive

56

alzheimers symptoms

deterioration of memory, language, physical function

57

alzheimers treatment

cholinerase inhibitors slow progression of the disease, but no cure

58

caring for someone with alzheimers

can be emotionally and physically draining, but care can really help the person

59

parkinson's

chronic and progressive
muscle tremors, slower movements, partial facial paralysis

60

Erikson stage — late adulthood

integrity vs despair

61

activity theory

the more active you are, the happier you are

62

selectivity theory

you become more selective of your social networks
normally have smaller networks but you spend more time with them

63

SOC

selection
optimization
compensation

64

selection

only choosing to focus on certain things

65

optimization

continued practice and using new technologies

66

compensation

you need to compensate with what you can't keep up with

67

generational inequity

should young adults have to pay for the elderly?

68

triple jeopardy

ageism
sexism
racism

69

changes in gender roles through life

men tend to become more feminine, but women don't become more masculine

70

factors that affect status of older adults in a culture

valuable knowledge
control key in their family and community resources
engage in useful and valued functions
role continuity
age-related role changes that give greater authority and responsibility
extended family
respect for older adults

71

how should we approach death?

best to accept the emotions and not try to hide them

72

cultural differences for grieving

most have rituals for death
depending on culture, it's not viewed as an end of existence
in the US we tend to be more cut off from death, as it usually happens in hospitals and hospice
not really one good way to grieve

73

living will

legally binding, must have a clear state of mind to create one
about the medical treatment you want for when you're no longer in a clear state of mind

74

advance directive

whether or not you want life support to prolong your life when death is imminent

75

active euthanasia

deliberately induced

76

passive euthanasia

don't give the treatment

77

teaching children about death

preschool age is when they normally start thinking about it
normally think they're going to come back to life
elementary age: universal, irreversible
as you're teaching your children, honesty is the best, emphasize that they are loved

78

Kubler-Ross stages of dying

denial and isolation: denial allows you to avoid coping with intense anger and hurt
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance

79

talking to someone who is dying

best to have open communication with them
talk about things with them
let them reminisce if they want
don't just sweep everything under the rug

80

dual-process mode of grieving

going back and forth between two dimensions— normally means that there's a loss of oriented stressors and a restoration of the oriented stressors
when you go numb and then you really feel everything