What kind of myths are stories in which the main characters are supernatural beings?
Divine myths are sometimes called __________ or __________
______________ generally explain why the world is the way it is
What does nyx mean?
What does erebus mean?
What does aether mean?
What does hemera mean?
Who came together to create Aether (radiance) and Hemera (day)?
Nyx (night) and Erebus (darkness)
In Greek myth, personification is called __________________
_____________ are stories of great deeds of human (or semi-divine) heroes
Legends can also be called _________
The word "legend" comes from the Latin word legenda. What does this word mean?
something that must be read
Who funded archaeological digs at Troy and Mycenae that proved the Trojan War actually happened?
What did Heinrich Schliemann call the huge horde of gold and jewels that was found during his archaeological digs?
Legends originally referred to Christian stories about the lives of ________
____________ are stories whose characters are ordinary people or animals
What are the 2 functions of folktales?
- entertain the audience
- teach/justify customary patterns of behaviour
What was the Greek word that described stories that today would be known as folktales?
An _________ is simply a moral fable
What was the example of a moral fable discussed in class?
Hesiod's tale of the Hawk and the Nightingale
A _________ is the regular appearance of certain identifiable narrative patterns in a story
_________ comes from the Greek and it means "to say something differently". It's similar to symbolism
Who was the first to use allegory to interpret myth?
What time period is assocatied with Theagenes?
6th c. BC
Theagenes said that myths about the battles between gods really represented conflict among ___________________
Theagenes based his interpretations on ______________
____________ means geting to the root of a word
Who was Zeus' father?
Explain the false etymology associated with Cronus
Cronus ate his children. The Greeks related Cronus with cronos (time). When Cronus ate his children, it meant "time devours everything"
Euhemerism says that myth tells us ______________
Who created Euhemerism?
What time period is associated with Euhemerus?
_____________ would say that the gods are historical figures. They were human kings who ruled long ago and were eventually transformed into gods through stories
What time period is associatd with the Minoans?
2200 - 1450 BC
Did the Minoans speak Greek?
no - their script was called Linear A and it hasn't been deciphered
The ___________ worshipped a single god, which was a female fertility goddess
TRUE OR FALSE: the Minoans had many defensive structures
FALSE - they had no defensive structrures, which suggests that they were potentially masters of the sea
When was the Minoan culture destroyed by the volcanic eruption on Thera (island near Crete)?
TRUE OR FALSE: in 1450 BC, the Minoan civilization was destroyed and the palaces were burned
What time period is associated with the Myceneans?
1600 - 1150 BC
The Myceneans' script was called Linear B and it was deciphered by __________________
Which of the following were warlike people: Minoans or Myceneans?
What was the ancient Indo-European language called?
Mesopotamia was known as the "land between rivers". What were these 2 rivers called?
Tigris and Euphrates
What time period is associated with Hesiod?
What are the 2 surviving works of Hesiod called?
Theogony and Works and Days
Hesiod's ________ was about the origin of the universe and Zeus' rise to becoming King of the gods
Hesiod's ___________ was about the fall of a man from a golden age to one of iron
Works and Days
Gaea and her son, Uranos, gave rise to 3 groups of offspring. Name these 3 groups
TRUE OR FALSE: Uranos was afraid of his own offspring taking his power
How many children did Cronus and his sister Rhea have together?
Name Cronus and Rhea's 6 children in order from oldest to youngest
Where did Rhea hide her youngest child, Zeus, from Cronus?
in a cave on the island of Crete
Zeus was raised in a cave by nymphs and was fed milk from the goat ___________ and honey from the bee ____________
Zeus was protected in his cave by the _____________ and the _____________
Curetes (young men)
How did Rhea trick Cronus into believing he had actually eaten Zeus?
she gave him a stone, which he swallowed thinking it was Zeus
Who gave Cronus an emetic which made him throw up his first 5 children as well as the stone?
Metis was the goddess of ______________
The stone which Cronus threw up became the famous ____________ at Delphi
How many hands did the Hecatoncheires have?
Who won the Titanomachy (war of Titans vs. Olympians)?
Who were the Titans that helped Zeus during the Titanomachy?
the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires
How did the Cyclopes help Zeus during the Titanomachy?
they fashioned his thunderbolts
After winning the Titanomachy, Zeus banished Cronus (and most other Titans) to __________
Who watches over the banished Titans in Tartaros after the Olympians won the Titanomachy?
The female Titans were neutral during the Titanomachy, so they were spared. Which other 3 male Titans were also spared from being banished to Tartaros?
What was Atlas' punishment after the Titanomachy instead of being banished to Tartaros?
he had to hold up the sky at the edge of the world
Who were Typhoeus' parents?
Tartaros and Gaea
What was the Greeks' explanation as to why the Egyptians worshipped animals?
Typhoeus was so terrifying that the Olympian gods fled to Egypt and disguised themselves as animals
Who defeated Typhoeus?
Explain the story about how Athena was born
Zeus swallowed Metis (cleverness) while she was pregnant. He then got a bad headache and split his head open with an axe. Out sprang Athena, fully armoured and yelling a war cry
Did Hesiod mention the Gigantomachy?
The Gigantomachy was a war of the Giants vs. the ___________
Who won the Gigantomachy?
Who is said to have created humans?
Prometheus tricks Zeus at ___________ into reserving the edible parts of the sacrifice for humans
How does Zeus punish humans for Prometheus' trick?
he witholds fire
After Zeus witholds fire from humans as a punishment for Prometheus' trick, Prometheus steals the fire back from heaven in a ______________
What does Zeus do to punish humans and to punish Prometheus after Prometheus stole fire back from heaven in a fennel-stalk?
humans - Zeus sends Pandora to man
Prometheus - Zeus chains Prometheus to a rock
___________ ends up freeing Prometheus from the rock that Zeus tied him to
What does Pandora's name mean?
All of the god contributed to Pandora's creation and endowed her with many charms. Who gave her a difficult character and a cheating heart?
What does Epimetheus' name mean?
What does Prometheus' name mean?
Who told Epimetheus not to accept any gifts from Zeus?
Epimetheus ignored his brother Prometheus' warning to not accept any gifts from Zeus and he accepts Pandora. What was Pandora carrying?
Pandora's jar held all things evil and all things good. When she opens the jar, all good things fly up to heaven and all evil things fall to Earth. What was the only good thing that got caught in the jar?
How many ages of man were there according to Hesiod's Works and Days?
How many ages of man were there according to Ovid's Metamorphoses?
What period of time is associated with Ovid?
43 BC - 17 AD
Ovid wrote Metamorphoses. What was the name of his other important work?
Art of Love
In what year was Ovid exiled by Augustus?
What is the reason that we think Ovid was exiled by Augustus in 8 AD?
Ovid was involved in a sex scandal with Augustus' daughter
What event marked the ending of Hesiod's Golden Age?
the introduction of Pandora to man
Which of Hesiod's 5 Ages of Man did not exist in Ovid's 4 Ages of Man?
Age of Heroes
Name Hesiod's 5 Ages of Man in order
- Golden Age
- SIlver Age
- Bronze Age
- Age of Heroes
- Iron Age
Name Ovid's 4 Ages of Man in order
- Golden Age
- Silver Age
- Bronze Age
- Iron Age
"Father of Gods and Men" is ________ nickname
One of Zeus' nicknames was "aegis-bearing Zeus". What was the aegis?
it was a magical goat skin with snake-headed tassels that served as a shield
Who did Zeus lend his aegis to?