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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Deck (101):
1

What kind of myths are stories in which the main characters are supernatural beings?

divine myths

2

Divine myths are sometimes called __________ or __________

true myths

myth proper

3

______________ generally explain why the world is the way it is

divine myths

4

What does nyx mean?

night

5

What does erebus mean?

darkness

6

What does aether mean?

radiance

7

What does hemera mean?

day

8

Who came together to create Aether (radiance) and Hemera (day)?

Nyx (night) and Erebus (darkness)

9

In Greek myth, personification is called __________________

anthropomorphism

10

_____________ are stories of great deeds of human (or semi-divine) heroes

legends

11

Legends can also be called _________

sagas

12

The word "legend" comes from the Latin word legenda. What does this word mean?

something that must be read

13

Who funded archaeological digs at Troy and Mycenae that proved the Trojan War actually happened?

Heinrich Schliemann

14

What did Heinrich Schliemann call the huge horde of gold and jewels that was found during his archaeological digs?

Priam's treasure

15

Legends originally referred to Christian stories about the lives of ________

saints

16

____________ are stories whose characters are ordinary people or animals

folktales

17

What are the 2 functions of folktales?

  1. entertain the audience
  2. teach/justify customary patterns of behaviour

18

What was the Greek word that described stories that today would be known as folktales?

ainos

19

An _________ is simply a moral fable

ainos

20

What was the example of a moral fable discussed in class?

Hesiod's tale of the Hawk and the Nightingale

21

A _________ is the regular appearance of certain identifiable narrative patterns in a story

motif

22

_________ comes from the Greek and it means "to say something differently". It's similar to symbolism

allegory

23

Who was the first to use allegory to interpret myth?

Theagenes

24

What time period is assocatied with Theagenes?

6th c. BC

25

Theagenes said that myths about the battles between gods really represented conflict among ___________________

natural forces

26

Theagenes based his interpretations on ______________

opposites

27

____________ means geting to the root of a word

etymology

28

Who was Zeus' father?

Cronus

29

Explain the false etymology associated with Cronus

Cronus ate his children. The Greeks related Cronus with cronos (time). When Cronus ate his children, it meant "time devours everything"

30

Euhemerism says that myth tells us ______________

historical truths

31

Who created Euhemerism?

Euhemerus

32

What time period is associated with Euhemerus?

300 BC

33

_____________ would say that the gods are historical figures. They were human kings who ruled long ago and were eventually transformed into gods through stories

Euhemerism

34

What time period is associatd with the Minoans?

2200 - 1450 BC

35

Did the Minoans speak Greek?

no - their script was called Linear A and it hasn't been deciphered

36

The ___________ worshipped a single god, which was a female fertility goddess

Minoans

37

TRUE OR FALSE: the Minoans had many defensive structures

FALSE - they had no defensive structrures, which suggests that they were potentially masters of the sea

38

When was the Minoan culture destroyed by the volcanic eruption on Thera (island near Crete)?

1630 BC

39

TRUE OR FALSE: in 1450 BC, the Minoan civilization was destroyed and the palaces were burned

TRUE

40

What time period is associated with the Myceneans?

1600 - 1150 BC

41

The Myceneans' script was called Linear B and it was deciphered by __________________

Michael Ventris

42

Which of the following were warlike people: Minoans or Myceneans?

Myceneans

43

What was the ancient Indo-European language called?

Sanskrit

44

Mesopotamia was known as the "land between rivers". What were these 2 rivers called?

Tigris and Euphrates

45

What time period is associated with Hesiod?

700 BC

46

What are the 2 surviving works of Hesiod called?

Theogony and Works and Days

47

Hesiod's ________ was about the origin of the universe and Zeus' rise to becoming King of the gods

Theogony

48

Hesiod's ___________ was about the fall of a man from a golden age to one of iron

Works and Days

49

Gaea and her son, Uranos, gave rise to 3 groups of offspring. Name these 3 groups

  1. Titans
  2. Cyclopes
  3. Hecatoncheires

50

TRUE OR FALSE: Uranos was afraid of his own offspring taking his power

TRUE

51

How many children did Cronus and his sister Rhea have together?

6

52

Name Cronus and Rhea's 6 children in order from oldest to youngest

  1. Hestia
  2. Demeter
  3. Hera
  4. Hades
  5. Poseidon
  6. Zeus

53

Where did Rhea hide her youngest child, Zeus, from Cronus?

in a cave on the island of Crete

54

Zeus was raised in a cave by nymphs and was fed milk from the goat ___________ and honey from the bee ____________

Amalthea

Melissa

55

Zeus was protected in his cave by the _____________ and the _____________

Corybantes (whirlers)

Curetes (young men)

56

How did Rhea trick Cronus into believing he had actually eaten Zeus?

she gave him a stone, which he swallowed thinking it was Zeus

57

Who gave Cronus an emetic which made him throw up his first 5 children as well as the stone?

Metis

58

Metis was the goddess of ______________

cleverness

59

The stone which Cronus threw up became the famous ____________ at Delphi

omphalos

60

How many hands did the Hecatoncheires have?

100

61

Who won the Titanomachy (war of Titans vs. Olympians)?

Olympians

62

Who were the Titans that helped Zeus during the Titanomachy?

the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires

63

How did the Cyclopes help Zeus during the Titanomachy?

they fashioned his thunderbolts

64

After winning the Titanomachy, Zeus banished Cronus (and most other Titans) to __________

Tartaros

65

Who watches over the banished Titans in Tartaros after the Olympians won the Titanomachy?

the Hecatoncheires

66

The female Titans were neutral during the Titanomachy, so they were spared. Which other 3 male Titans were also spared from being banished to Tartaros?

  1. Epimetheus
  2. Prometheus
  3. Atlas

67

What was Atlas' punishment after the Titanomachy instead of being banished to Tartaros?

he had to hold up the sky at the edge of the world

68

Who were Typhoeus' parents?

Tartaros and Gaea

69

What was the Greeks' explanation as to why the Egyptians worshipped animals?

Typhoeus was so terrifying that the Olympian gods fled to Egypt and disguised themselves as animals

70

Who defeated Typhoeus?

Zeus

71

Explain the story about how Athena was born

Zeus swallowed Metis (cleverness) while she was pregnant. He then got a bad headache and split his head open with an axe. Out sprang Athena, fully armoured and yelling a war cry

72

Did Hesiod mention the Gigantomachy?

no

73

The Gigantomachy was a war of the Giants vs. the ___________

Olympians

74

Who won the Gigantomachy?

the Olympians

75

Who is said to have created humans?

Prometheus

76

Prometheus tricks Zeus at ___________ into reserving the edible parts of the sacrifice for humans

Mekone

77

How does Zeus punish humans for Prometheus' trick?

he witholds fire

78

After Zeus witholds fire from humans as a punishment for Prometheus' trick, Prometheus steals the fire back from heaven in a ______________

fennel-stalk

79

What does Zeus do to punish humans and to punish Prometheus after Prometheus stole fire back from heaven in a fennel-stalk?

humans - Zeus sends Pandora to man

Prometheus - Zeus chains Prometheus to a rock

80

___________ ends up freeing Prometheus from the rock that Zeus tied him to

Heracles

81

What does Pandora's name mean?

"all gifted"

82

All of the god contributed to Pandora's creation and endowed her with many charms. Who gave her a difficult character and a cheating heart?

Hermes

83

What does Epimetheus' name mean?

"afterthought"

84

What does Prometheus' name mean?

"forethought"

85

Who told Epimetheus not to accept any gifts from Zeus?

Prometheus

86

Epimetheus ignored his brother Prometheus' warning to not accept any gifts from Zeus and he accepts Pandora. What was Pandora carrying?

a jar

87

Pandora's jar held all things evil and all things good. When she opens the jar, all good things fly up to heaven and all evil things fall to Earth. What was the only good thing that got caught in the jar?

hope

88

How many ages of man were there according to Hesiod's Works and Days?

5

89

How many ages of man were there according to Ovid's Metamorphoses?

4

90

What period of time is associated with Ovid?

43 BC - 17 AD

91

Ovid wrote Metamorphoses. What was the name of his other important work?

Art of Love

92

In what year was Ovid exiled by Augustus?

8 AD

93

What is the reason that we think Ovid was exiled by Augustus in 8 AD?

Ovid was involved in a sex scandal with Augustus' daughter

94

What event marked the ending of Hesiod's Golden Age?

the introduction of Pandora to man

95

Which of Hesiod's 5 Ages of Man did not exist in Ovid's 4 Ages of Man?

Age of Heroes

96

Name Hesiod's 5 Ages of Man in order

  1. Golden Age
  2. SIlver Age
  3. Bronze Age
  4. Age of Heroes
  5. Iron Age

97

Name Ovid's 4 Ages of Man in order

  1. Golden Age
  2. Silver Age
  3. Bronze Age
  4. Iron Age

98

"Father of Gods and Men" is ________ nickname

Zeus'

99

One of Zeus' nicknames was "aegis-bearing Zeus". What was the aegis?

it was a magical goat skin with snake-headed tassels that served as a shield

100

Who did Zeus lend his aegis to?

Athena

101