FINAL EXAM - Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM - Cancer Deck (81)
1

cancer

group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells

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The four categories of Cancer

1. carcinomas
2. leukemias
3. sarcomas
4. lymphomas

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Carcinomas begin in the

the body's organs (including skin)

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leukemias begin in

blood-forming tissues (e.g. bone marrow)

5

sarcomas begin in

connective tissue (e.g. bone, fat, muscle, or cartilage)

6

lymphomas begin in the

lymphatic system

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The most common forms of cancer (5)

1. breast
2. lung
3. prostate
4. bronchus
5. colorectal

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in most cancers, except for leukemia, the cancerous cells form a

tumor

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To diagnose cancer, physicians may use (4)

1. CT scans
2. xrays
3. mammograms
4. lab tests

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Etiology of Cancer

the uncontrolled growth of mutated cells which can be caused by internal/external factors

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Internal factors that cause cancer (4) can not be controlled!

1. genetics (inherited cell mutations)
2. immunological conditions
3. cell mutations produced bia metabolism
4. hormones

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External factors that cause cancer (7)
(80% of cancer cases in US)

1. tobacco use
2. exposure to radiation (including sun exposure)
3. poor nutrition
4. physical inactivity
5. certain infectious agents
6. certain medical treatments
7. exposure to carcinogens via pollution, employment ......

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Cancers caused by external factors can be

prevented

14

What is the TNM system? Which cancers do not use this system(3)?

common method of staging cancer; T-extent of the primary tumor, N - extent of spread to the lymph nodes, M - presence of distant metastasis.
Not used for :
Nervous system cancers
lymphomas
leukemias

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Extent of the primary tumor classification (4)

1. TX
2. T0
3. Tis
4. T1, T2, T3, T4

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TX (tumor)

primary tumor cannot be evaluated

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T0

no evidence of primary tumor

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Tis

carcinoma in situ - tumor is still confined to the site it started (early cancer)

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T1, T2, T3, T4 refers to

size and or extent of the primary tumor

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Extent of spread to lymph nodes classification (3)

1. NX
2. N0
3. N1, N2, N3

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NX

regional lymph nodes cannot be evaluated

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N0

no regional lymph node involvement

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N1, N2, N3

involvement of regional lymph nodes (number of lymph nodes and/or extent of spread)

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Presence of distant metastasis classification (3)

1.MX
2. M0
3. M1

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MX

distant metastasis cannot be evaluated

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M0

no distant metastasis

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M1

distant metastasis is present

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Stage 0

cancer in situ

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Stage 1, Stage II, Stage III

Higher number indicates more extensive disease; larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ/site in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and /or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor

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Stage IV

the cancer has spread to another organ(s)

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Regular screenings are recommended because some forms of cancer do not have

early symptoms

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General symptoms of cancer (5)

1. unexplained weight loss of 10lbs or more
2. fever
3. fatigue
4. pain
5. skin changes (color change, itching, excessive hair growth)

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Signs and symptoms that may indicate a specific form of cancer (8)

1. change in bowel habits or bladder function
2. sores that do not heal
3. white patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue
4. unusual bleeding or discharge
5. thickening or lump in the breast or other parts of the body
6. indigestion or trouble swallowing
7. recent change in wart or mole or any new skin change
8. nagging cough or hoarseness

34

Treatment of cancer may cause exacerbation of cancer symptoms and/or additional symptoms such as (8)

1. cognitive difficulties
2. decreased immunity
3 gastrointestinal problems
4. edema/lymphedema
5. sleep disturbances
6. hormonal imbalances
7. difficulty breathing
8. nervous and musculoskeletal difficulties

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hormonal imbalance can lead to (2, etc.)

1. menopause
2. sexual problems

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Gastrointestinal problems include (3)

1. appetite changes
2. nausea or vomiting
3. diarrhea or constipation

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nervous and musculoskeletal problems include

1. tremors
2. pain
3. weakness
4. decreased ROM
5. hearing loss

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Symptoms of cancer most often result in a decrease in (2)

1. functional capacities and abilities
2. individual's occupational participation

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Reaction to cancer diagnosis, decreased Fn and/or side effect/ result of treatment can also effect an individual

psychosocially

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Primary treatment options for cancer (8)

1. surgery
2. chemotherapy
3. radiation
4. targeted therapy
5. biological therapy/immunotherapy
6. hyperthermia
7. photodynamic therapy
8. hormone therapy

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Palliative Care treatments (7)

1. pain medication
2. respiratory therapy
3. audiology
4. physical therapy
5. nutrition and dietary recommendations
6. complementary and alternative medicines
7. social work

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chemotherapy

the use of medicine or drugs that destroy cancer cells

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radiation

the use of high-powered energy beams to damage or kill cancer cells

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targeted therapy

use of drugs or other substances that directly block the growth and spread of cancerous cells

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biological therapy/immunotherapy

techniques to boos the immune system's response to cancer cells

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hyperthermia

the use of high temperatures to destroy cancer cells

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stem cell/bone marrow transplant

often used to replenish the body's supply of healthy cells after/or before chemotherapy or radiation treatment

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photodynamic therapy (PDT)

the use of drugs and light to destroy cancer cells

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hormone therapy

removal of hormones that fuel certain kinds of cancer (prostate and breast cancer)

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Client factor assessments for patients with cancer (8)

1. MD Anderson Symptom inventory
2. brief fatigue inventory
3. beck depression inventory -II
4. Allen cognitive level screen-fifth version
5. ROM
6. Measures of pain
7. Measures of Edema
8. Measures of muscle strength

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occupational therapy interventions will vary depending on the clients (4)

1. individuals needs and desires
2. form and stage of cancer
3. symptoms
4. treatment already received

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Interventions for cancer may include (7)

1. retraining in ADLS
2. environmental assessment to determine fall risk
3. cognitive retraining
4. developing coping strategies to address psychosocial and physical symptoms/effects
5. lifestyle modification
6. recommendations or support groups
7. Consultation at end of life

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Retraining in ADLs would focus on (3)

1. environmental/task modification
2. assistive technology
3. suggestions to maintain satisfaction in sexual activity despite hormonal imbalances

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Coping strategies(3)

1. pain/edema management
2. sleep regulation techniques
3. energy conservation techniques to minimize fatigue when performing activities

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energy conservation techniques include (3)

1. relaxation techniques
2. meaningful participation in exercise
3. time management skills to balance appointments and necessary activities with leisure, play, and social participation

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Lifestyle modifications

identify new or alternate occupations that allow client to participate satisfactorily; may include employment

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Consulation at the end of life regards strategies for (2)

1. maintaining productivity
2. finding closure in life and personal relationships

and so forth....

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the most commonly used interventions for clients with cancer address

occupational domains of leisure and productive occupations (IADL/Work...) and involve energy conservation and goal setting.

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Breast cancer recovery program was shown to safely decrease _____ while _______

lymphedema while improving participant quality of life and mood

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Clients with cancer have reported that the (2) associated with cancer impact their (2)

1. fatigues
2. psychological stress

1. lives
2. ability to maintain life roles

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hyperplasia

increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue that appear normal under a microscope; can be part of inflammatory process, not necessarily cancer

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dysplasia

cells look abnormal under a microscope; extra build up of cells that look disorganized. Tends to become cancer cells

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benign tumors

do not spread into or invade nearby tissues; less risk.

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malignant tumors

spread into or invade nearby tissues

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How does cancer metastasize?

cancer cells break away from primary tumor, travel through the blood or lymph system and form new tumors in other areas.

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debulking

when tumor is wrapped around vital organs; surgery is done to remove some of the tumor for pain relief.
Increase quality of life not quantity

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palliation

cancer surgery to help relieve pain and restore physical fn. Increase quality of life not quantity

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Chemotherapy increases the risk for

infection

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neutropenic precautions

used to prevent infection in someone with low neutrophil count.
client is protected from others and the environment through negative pressure room. Only clean air enters the room. and the client wears a face mask.

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Goal of chemotherapy

get rid of all of the cancer and keep it from coming back

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goal of palliative chemotherapy

delay cancer growth to increase the quality of life

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purpose of neoadjuvant chemotherapy

help shrink the size of a tumor prior to surgical excision

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Chemotherapy impact on body structures and functions (14)

1. anemia
2. appetite loss
3. attention, thinking or memory problems (Chemo brain)
4. difficulty swallowing or dysphagia
5. dry mouth or xerostomia
6. fatigue
7. fluid in the abdomen - ascites
8. hair loss - alopecia
9. lymphedema
10. menopausal symptoms in women
11. mouth sores - mucositis
12. nausea and vomiting
13. neutropenia
14. peripheral neuropathy

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chemobrain

side effect of chemotherapy that can have a life long effect, later in life needs to be considered, is it residual chemobrain or is it dementia

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Two things that can cause xerostomia

location of tumor
medication side effect

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Ascites

fluid in the abdomen that causes pressure on the organs

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Menopausal symptoms can be caused because of (2)

the chemotherapy
reproductive organ removal

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brachytherapy

internal radiation therapy ; placed in the body near the cancer cells

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systemic radiation therapy

radioactive substances (iodine) travels in the blood to kill cancer cells

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free radicals

charged particles within the cells that damage the dna; caused by radiation

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Radiation therapy impact on body structures and functions ( 12 )

1. fatigue
2. nausea with or without vomiting
3. fibrosis (scar tissue)
4. limited movement due to scar tissue
5. damage to bowels
6. diarrhea
7. intestinal bleeding
8. memory loss
9. infertility
10. second cancer from radiation exposure (Rare)
11. skin slough (due to sunburn effect)
12. pain