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Flashcards in Final Exam - Chapter 12 Deck (10):

Content Theories

Emphasize the needs that motivate people
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- ERG Theory
- Acquired Needs Theory


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Proposes that people are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in hierarchical order.

1) Self- actualization Needs
2) Esteem Needs
3) Belongingness Needs
4) Safety Needs
5) Physiological Needs


ERG Theory

Proposes that movement up the hierarchy is more complex, reflecting a frustration-regression principle: Failure to meet a high-order need may trigger a regression to an already fulfilled lower-order need

- Existence Needs
- Relatedness Needs = Satisfactory needs with others
- Growth Needs = Development of human potential and desire for growth and competence


Acquired Needs Theory

Proposes that certain types of needs are acquired during the individual's lifetime. People are not born with these needs, but may learn them through life experiences.

- Need for achievement
- Need for affiliation
- Need for power


Process Theories

Explain how people select behavioral actions to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful

- Goal- Setting Theory
- Equity Theory


Goal - Setting Theory

Proposes that managers can increase motivation and enhance performance by setting specific, challenging goals, and then helping people track their progress toward goal achievement by providing timely feedback


Equity Theory

Focuses on individual's perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others. People are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards that they receive for performance.

Equity = Exists whenever the ratio of one person's outcomes to input equals the ratio of another person's inputs



Forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action


Model for Motivation - Feedback Model

Need: Creates desire to fulfill needs (money, friendship, recognition, achievement)

Behavior: Results in actions to fulfill needs

Rewards: Satisfy needs, intrinsic or extrinsic rewards

Feedback: Reward informs people whether the behavior was appropriate and should do again


Types of Rewards

- Intrinsic: Satisfactions that a person receives in the process of performing a particular action. The completion of a complex task may bestow a pleasant feeling of accomplishment

- Extrinsic: Given by another person, typically a manager, and include promotions, praise, and pay increases. They originate externally, as a result of pleasing others