Final Exam GI Physiology: Glandular Stomach Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam GI Physiology: Glandular Stomach Deck (39):
1

What protects the glandular stomach against microorganisms?

HCl

2

What protects the glandular stomach against HCl and abrasive ingesta?

Mucin

3

What is responsible for lubrication of the glandular stomach?

Mucin

4

The glandular stomach is the initial site of ______ of protein.

hydrolysis

5

The glandular stomach functions to produce and secrete GIF (gastric intrinsic factor). What is the function of GIF?

It binds to Vitamin B12 and protects it from being digested

6

What secretes GIF?

The acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas

7

What is Vitamin B12 essential for?

The maturation of RBCs

8

What are the types of cells found in the glandular stomach?

Peptic Chief Cells
Parietal Oxyntic Cells
Mucus Neck Cells

9

What do peptic chief cells do?

Produce enzymes likes pepsinogen, lipase, prorennin, and urease. Little water follows.

10

What do parietal oxyntic cells do?

Produce HCl and GIF. Water follows.

11

What do mucus neck cells do?

Produce mucin and HCO3-. Water follows.

12

HCO3- production is increased by what?

Cholinergic agents and prostaglandins

13

HCO3- production is decreased by what?

alpha- adrenergic agonists and phospholipase A2 and COX inhibitors

14

Parietal cells actively transport _____ and ______.

H+ and Cl-

15

What is alkaline tide?

The alkaline blood leaving the stomach is called alkaline tide.

16

What are the 3 powerful AGONISTS of parietal cell HCl secretion?

ACh
Histamine
Gastrin

17

What are some endogenous ANTAGONISTS of parietal cell HCl secretion?

Somatostatin
Prostaglandins
CCK
Secretin

18

What does ACh act on?

Muscarinic receptors

19

What does ACh inhibit?

Inhibits secretion of somatostatin

20

What does ACh promote?

Promotes the secretion of histamine and gastrin

21

What does Histamine act on?

H2 receptors

22

Where is Gastrin produced?

From G-cells in the gastric and duodenal mucosa

23

What does Somatostatin inhibit?

Inhibits release of gastrin

24

What does CCK do?

Acts to decrease acid by binding to gastrin/CCK receptors with little excitation

25

Where is secretin produced?

It is an endocrine product of the duodenal mucosal cells

26

What drugs influence parietal cell activity and therefore production/secretion of HCl?

Atropine
H2 Receptor Blockers
Inhibitors of H+-K+ ATPase
Glucocorticoids
COX Inhibitors

27

What does the administration of glucocorticoids/COX inhibitors do?

Increase acid production/secretion

28

In general, the cephalic phase and gastric phase of glandular stomach activity are _________.

Stimulatory

29

In general, the intestinal phase of glandular stomach activity is ________.

Inhibitory

30

What acts as a feedback inhibitor of acid production in the stomach?

Somatostatin

31

What inhibits paracrine and endocrine secretions at many sites in the body?

Somatostatin

32

When you think INHIBITION, you should think __________.

Somatostatin

33

What does the following?:
Increases peptic cell secretion
Promotes contraction of LES
Promotes contraction of pyloric sphincter
Increases gastric motility
Is a potent mitogen
Is trophic to many cells in the stomach

GASTRIN!

34

What does the following?:
Is vasodilatory in effect
Increases gastric motility

HISTAMINE

35

What does the following?:
Inhibits histamine-secreting cells in the stomach
Inhibits CCK-secreting cells and secretin-secreting cells in the small intestine
Slows nutrient absorption in the small intestine
Inhibits exocrine secretion in the pancreas
Inhibits secretion of glucagon by a-cells of the pancreas
Inhibits secretion of insulin by b-cells of the pancreas

SOMATOSTATIN= INHIBITION

36

What does Ghrelin do?

Stimulates the release of Growth Hormone by the adenohypophysis

37

T or F: CCK is an anorexigenic substance.

True

38

T or F: Ghrelin is an orexigenic substance.

True

39

The relative concentrations of which two substances modulate the gut's message to the brain as it pertains to food intake?

CCK and Ghrelin