Final Exam (Ideology to the New Imperialism) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam (Ideology to the New Imperialism) Deck (65):

What is Ideology?

  • An idea, a way of thought, a philosophy
  • A theory about something




  • An American/ Napoleonic View
  • Identified with the new middle class
  • Equality of opportunity
  • Careers based on talent
  • Equality under the law
  • Representative Government
  • Freedom from gov't interference
    • Want a small gov't with no business regulation



Economic Liberalism

  • Gov't business regulation chokes the economy
  • laissez-faire capitalism=hands off




  • Modern form developed from the French Revolution
  • Elected governments without kings
  • Political and sometimes social equality
  • Radical Change (rebellion and change of everything)
  • Stems from John Locke and arbitrary power




  • Reliance on tradition
  • Reluctance to radical change
  • Support traditional religious, political, and social structures
  • No stepping outside of the box
  • Want women to be in the home and men to work
  • Vocal about what a proper woman is
  • Believe if you are poor you are lazy




  • The only "good" political system was the one based on the nation
  • Traditions, language, customs
  • Their country has the best religion and gov't
  • Can throw off an oppressive gov't
  • Try to make immigrants be like you
  • Believe that each nationality should have their own gov't
  • Dangerous: can lead to war and rebellion
  • Divided people: German states should be one united people
  • Fundamentally radical




  • Rejection of Enlightenment rationalism
  • favored passion, emotion and feeling
  • Linked with many varieties of political thought especially nationalism
  • Say to use the imagination because the enlightenment made us robots
  • Three Main Goals:
    • Emphasized imagination of the individul since the enlightenment didnt follow imagination
    • Glorify the past and dont like change


Political Liberalism

  • Protection of civil liberties
  • Peaceful opposition to the gov't
  • laws made by an elected legislative assembly
  • All citizens are entitled to equal civil rights but not equal political rights (men)
  • Liberals are not Democrats
    • Democrats say all have the right to vote
    • 1830s: laws state that all white freemen have the right to vote. No property



John Stuart Mill


  • A 19th century liberal
  • On liberty:
    • absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all objects
  • On the subjection of women:
    • Difference not based on nature but societal expectations
    • Believed in universal suffrage for men and women



Early Socialism

  • Reaction to the effects of industrialization
  • Want to reform industry so that children and pregnant women arent working
  • Equality in social conditions
  • Human cooperation is superior to competition



Robert Owen

  • A utopian socialist
  • A businessman involved with British cotton mills
  • Believes that all humans are good
  • Creates New Lanarc, Scotland
  • Nobody gets paid
  • He runs it his way and pays the investors using profit
  • Fails because he is trying to manage it like a business
  • Human nature is that if we work harder we should get more



Italy Before Unification

  • Italy has a bunch of small kingdoms involving monarchs, Papal rule and dukes
  • Piedmont-Sardinia take charge of unification



Camilillio de Cavour

  • Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia
  • Builds up the treasury and with that an army
  • One of his primary goals is to get rid of the Austrians and the French



Cavours Strategy

  • Get Austrians to invade the Piedmont 
  • This leads France to declare war on Austria
  • Results:
    • France gets Savoy and Nice
    • Piedmont gets Lombardy
    • Parma, Modena and Tuscany are inspired to rebel and join the Piedmont



Giuseppe Garabaldi

  • In the south, a farmer is on the rise and wants unification
  • He raises and army and takes Naples and the kingdom of the Two Scicily's
  • In the end, he hands the lands he captured to Cavor and Piedmont-Sardinia



Final Stage of Italian Unification

  • When Cavor dies in 1860, Rome and Venetia are still needed but France and Austria are too strong
  • Austro-Prussian War (1866):
    • PS are now allied with Prussia
    • Prussians win and we get Venitia
  • Franco-Prussian War (1870-71)
    • France pulls out of the papal states
  • Unification is complete in September of 1871





Otto von Bismark

  • Prime Minister of Prussia
  • Not a nationalist but he wants unification
  • Believes Prussia should rule Germany and be the strongest German state
  • Wants power



Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia

  • Bismark seees Wilhelm has weak


Bismark's Strategy

  1. Knock Austria out of the German Confederation
  2. Possess Scheswig- Holstein
  3. Seven Weeks War
  4. Franco-Prussian War



Gaining Possession of Scheswig-Holstein

  • Get the Danish King out
  • 1864: Bismark works with Austrians to create a war



Seven Weeks War (Austro-Prussian War)

  • Disposses Austria of claim to Scheswig region
  • Dissolves the German Confederation
  • Austrians go and fight amongst themselves



Franco-Prussian War

  • He wants to push Nationalism and bring southern states into the war
  • When the Hollenzollerans are inline for the Spanish throne, discourse starts
  • Wilhelm is sent to talk to the French Ambassador
  • Bismark goades the French causing France to declare war on Prussia
  • France easily loses



German Unification

  • Germany becomes unified in January 1871



The German Social Democratic Party

  • Political Group/Party
  • Focussed on better working class reality
  • Not violent; want to change through the law and try to make improvements
  • Want laws that help the working class
  • Want to change national capitalism



The Second International

  • Not a labor union
  • Strikes, marches, demonstration
  • International Labor Day
  • Through Western Europe
  • Nationalism hurts the political union and causes internal stress



Frederick Engles

  • Writes "The Condition of the Working Class in England (1845)"
  • Son of a textile manufacturer 
  • Goes to different British mills and factories and becomes a supporter of the working class
  • He discussed how capitalism hurts people
  • Criticism of the "systematic inequalities" of capitalism



Karl Marx

  • Industrialization prohibited workers from building a fulfilling life
    • Modern work alienates the workers from a good life
    • No personality in work
  • Growing Class Struggle
    • Bourgeoisie: middle class
    • Proletariat: poor



The Communist Manifesto

  • Class conflict:
    • 1st stage: master/slave
    • 2nd stage: lord/serf
    • 3rd stage: bourgeoisie v. proletariate
  • Instability of the capitalist system would help destroy the middle class
  • The size of the ruling class would dwindle and disappear
  • Wage earning workers come to understand that they lacked a political voice and become revolutionaries


The Victorian Family

  • Central to the Victorian Era
  • Traditional and Conservative
  • The standard of living increases especially after 1860
  • Education is important especially to the middle class
    • Normal schools form to teach people how to teach
  • Many homes had at least 1 servant in them
    • Allowed women of the house to get a break in the afternoon for Christian charity/suffrage
  • The family size drops



Middle Class Victorian Ideals

  • Women care for the home, children and husband
  • Women do charity work
  • No family strife is allowed
  • Children are seen and not heard
  • Husband is the head of the house
  • A sexual double standard
    • Men can do what they want but women are always supposed to be at the house ready to care for the family



Working Class Families

  • Higher standard living
  • Higher paring jobs available
  • Less need for wives and children to work due to higher paying jobs
  • Family size drops: more money means less children
  • Some wives still work at department stores



Socialist (Progressive) Advances

  • Unions are more successful
  • child and women labor laws
    • Cannot work if too young or are pregnant
  • Public health laws
  • Compulsory education
  • In 1900: A 10 hour work day
  • In 1914: no work on Saturday Afternoon
  • Unions:
    • Help improve the working conditions
    • Strengthens family ideals when people get Saturday off





Education in the Victorian Age

  • Western European gov'ts absorb the cost of education
    • Free, public education
    • Girls and boys, compulsory
    • Teacher certification
    • Teaching becomes a woman's profession



Why do governments pay for education? (Liberals and Conservatives)

  • Liberals
    • Personal and social growth
    • want to extend religion into school
    • Want children exposed to ethics and morals
  • Conservatives
    • As a way to train military recruits
    • Teaching discipline and obediance
    • Build good character
    • Especially in Germany, increases the nations military strength


Why do governments pay for education? (Industrialists and Political)

  • Industrialists
    • Provide trained workers and managers
    • The industrialized world is becoming more complex increasing the need for education
  • Political
    • Educated citizen and voter
    • Patriotism and nationalism
    • character building



Gender in the Victorian Age

  • Idealized and Conservative
  • Women get an allowance from the husband to buy food and pay bills
  • Women are never idle
  • A huge divide between home and work
  • Men: conservative, sober, clothes
  • Women: shape, form, and decoration mirrors function



Woman, Philanthropy and Politics

  • Women serve the poor= exposure to a wider world
    • View injustices and inequities
  • Moral mission becomes a political mission
  • Women realize that as they work, things are not changing
  • Women want a voice in how the system works



German Women's Association

  • Started by Lily Braun and Clara Zetkin
  • An umbrella organization for other organizations
  • Too many leaders that want to lead causing the organization to break apart



National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies

  • Millicent Fawcett: middle class
  • Umbrella organization for 16 groups
  • Women become more frustrated
  • Women plant seeds into their husbands heads. These seeds eventually make it to Parliament



Womens Suffrage in Britain

  • Parliament is reluctant because they dont want to help the other part
  • 1918: Women get the bote but only for 30+
  • 1928: Full women's suffrage




Women's Social and Political Union

  • Formed by Emmeline Pankhurst
  • Going to be more militant by chaining selves to the gates of Parliament
  • Although it is negative it does get the world's attention
  • Emily Wilding Davison
    • Grabs the kings horse during the race and gets trampled to death


Anti-Semistism in France

  • The Jews are always put at a disadvantage



Edouard Drumont

  • Writes "Jewish France"
    • Calls them Christ killers
    • Plays on people's fears of starving
    • Lays the foundation for a fight
    • Jews are hoarding money



Dreyfus Affair

  • Alfred Dreyfus, a military officer, is accused of giving information to Germany
  • Tried and convicted and sent to Devil's Island and lives
  • General Picard finds that the filers were forged so he orders a new trial
  • In 1899, Dreyfus is freed and given a promotion and given a great honor



Importance of the Dreyfus Affair

  • France must decide on a self definition
    • Are they going to practice the ideas of the revolution OR allow ideas of superiority
    • Are they going to deny Republican Ideals
  • France has to decide on the role of the Catholic church



The Church in France after the Dreyfus Affair

  • Church says: "We have to decide if we are going to allow the Jews to control the government and the industry"
  • 1901,1905 laws
    • Prohibit religious orders in France if not authorized by the State
    • Relgious clerics are forbidden to teach in both private and public schools
    • The Catholic Church is no longer the favored religion. All religions are equal now



The Boer Wars

  • Britain, Germany and the Netherlands are all fighting for South Africa
  • The Dutch want a settlement, farming and to exploit resources
  • Leads to aparthied



Imperialism: Spain

  • Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines are given to the United States in the Spanish-American War



Imperialism: Italy

  • The Red Sea and Ethiopia
  • Want to strip the land of the natural resources



Imperialism: Britain

  • North Africa and China
    • Boxer Rebellion of 1900: against the political and religious rule
  • India, Burma, Australia, New Zealand



Imperialism: France

  • Indo-China (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia)
  • French Guiana



New Manifest Destiny: Spiritual

  • God has blessed the West
  • Christian Duty: "Enlighten the unenlightened"



New Manifest Destiny: Social

  • Spread the western influence and civilization



New Manifest Destiny: Political

  • Spread political and legal influence
  • Change how things are done



New Manifest Destiny: Economic

  • Look for raw materials
  • International Markets



New Manifest Destiny: Military

  • Naval bases to protect interests such as merchants
  • Also to watch other countries



Social Darwinism

  • "Survival of the fittest on an economic and social level"
  • Allows for the justification of why one is wealthy and why another is poor
  • Some are fit and some are not (ordained by God)
  • Enlighten the unenlightened: White Man's Burden
  • The goal is to make money to help ourselves. Do not care about the other people.



Imperialism: Japan

  • Late 1850s we get a new regime
  • Decide that they will westernize and control themselves
  • Outlaw the samuri and bring in American education
  • Call on the Germans for a military
  • Industrialize
  • Japanese become the 4th largest industrialized nation from 1860-1900


Steel vs. Iron

  • Steel is stronger than iron and lasts longer
  • Steel can be molded
  • Steel can be used for ships
  • Allows Germany to build a strong navy and to build infrastructure




  • 1800: Volta comes up with the chemical battery
  • 1831: Faraday invents electromagnetic induction
  • 1880's: Alternators and transformers
    • Can collect electricity and transport it
    • Houses get lit up but expensive
    • It takes a while before electricity makes it into houses
    • Allows for a more profitable business world since there can be 24 hour operation
    • Leads to a different social life






  • The British and the Germans use alkali and organic compounds to make:
    • Paper, soaps, textiles, and fertilizers
  • The Germans focus on artillery and gases and control 90% of the worlds chemical production
  • The British are known for their soap (Pear and Lever)
  • Cleaning agents




  • Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone
  • Transatlantic Telegraph allows connection between America and Europe
    • Start of the Associated Press
    • Quick Transport of information
    • Multiline telegraph can send information to multiple locations



Population in the Second Industrial Revolution

  • 1870-1914
    • Germany: 41.1M to 64.9M
    • Britain: 31.8M to 45.4M
  • Population growth due to increases in life expectancies
  • More access to free clinics
  • The Progressives/Social Democrats are trying to better the poor



Rise of Consumerism

  • A higher quality of life
  • People begin buying things they don't need such as the Singer sewing machine



The Corporation

  • Workers now need professional qualifications for employment such as education
  • Advancing is more difficult without having an education