Flashcards in Final Exam Review Deck (38):
One in ________ people who try marijuana will develop cannabis use disorder.
True or false: chronic stimulant use will lead to the development of tolerance to anorexia.
Reckless behavior in children is often a sign of ____________.
Fluvoxamine is unique in that it does not cause _____________.
Lithium and lithium/divalproex are ____________ drugs.
relapse prevention (the SNAPP quiz said they are not maintenance drugs)
Interestingly, some studies have shown that during a panic attack, people typically have less __________________ in the prefrontal cortex.
natural benzodiazepine binding
Agoraphobia is a common feature of which anxiety disorder?
Panic disorder (not social anxiety!)
The anxiety disorder with the greatest amount of co-morbid psychiatric illness is _______________.
generalized anxiety disorder
Which sedatives are used to treat ischemic brain injury and why?
They decrease calcium uptake, decrease oxygen use, and decrease ICP.
Which cortical layer is strictly motor?
Feedforward processing originates in which cortical layers?
V and VI
Compared to someone in a vegetative state, a person in a minimally conscious state might display what?
At higher doses, ethanol has been shown to inhibit what neurotransmitter system?
NMDA – glutamate
Abulia can result from a lesion to what?
Severe lithium toxicity leads to what symptoms?
Stupor, coma, seizures
Nicotine is addictive because it stimulates neurons to release ________________.
opioids and dopamine
Why is fructose given to those with alcohol toxicity?
Because it converts NADH to NAD, which speeds the metabolism of alcohol
___________________ are sometimes given to those with alcohol toxicity to decrease hyperexcitability.
Ondansetron antagonizes which receptor?
Glycopyrrolates are antimuscarinics that are used to ________________ in surgery.
prevent excess secretions and bradycardia
MAC is _______________ between drugs.
Induction is the time between start of drug administration and what stage of anesthesia?
Depth of anesthesia is determined by ________________.
concentration of anesthetic in the brain
True or false: thalamic relay neurons carry information two ways – from the thalamus to the cortex and from the cortex to the thalamus.
The amygdala projects to the hypothalamus via the ______________.
What kind of amnesia is present in Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
Anterograde and retrograde
Someone with a hippocampus lesion is unable to __________________.
"consolidate long-term memories"
What three things are true of REM sleep?
- paralysis is induced except for the eyes, diaphragm, and middle ear muscles
- it arises from pontine nuclei
- a temporary state of poikilothermia (lack of body temperature regulation) exists
The locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei, and cholinergic nuclei of the midbrain are all _________________ while awake.
What three things did Dr. Sakai focus on in his panic-disorder questions?
- that those with PD have suicide rates comparable to major depression
- that those with PD are hypersensitive to alpha-2 antagonists
- are more likely to have histories of childhood trauma
Anxiety ________________ the presence of depression.
About 1/3 of those with PD only have panic attacks ___________.
Dopamine blocking in the ______________ is responsible for the diabetes, weight gain, and appetite increases seen in those taking antipsychotics.
True or false: those with schizophrenia are usually oriented to A&O x3.
Which thalamic nucleus is involved in the limbic system?
The anterior nucleus – this receives the mammillothalamic tract and sends axons to the cingulate gyrus.
True or false: the cingulate cortex is continuous with the entorhinal cortex.
True! This is the final bit of the limbic circuit.
The diagonal band of Broca connects the ________________.
entorhinal cortex to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus