Flashcards in Final EXAM Strengths and Weaknesses of perspectives Deck (27):
What are the strengths of the Trait approach?
Description; Testable concepts; Parsimony; Heuristic value; Applied value
Why is testable concepts a strength of the TRAIT approach?
Because traits can be operationalised and tested. Especially in the NEO which is a clear measurement of the big 5 factors. Unlike the psychoanalytic perspective where it is hard to measure psychic energy
Why is the TRAIT approach strong in "description"?
Because it allows us to simplify personality. Especially from 4500 trait names down to 5 or so
Is the TRAIT approach high in heuristic value?
YES. This approach has stimulated a lot of research and also several researches looking at the same concepts produces VALIDITY IN CONCEPTS
Is the TRAIT approach high in Applied value? Why or why not?
Yes, because traits are measured in nearly every form of therapeutic assessment. Also the MMPI and findings for conscientiousness in the workplace
What are some criticisms of the TRAIT approach?
(1) Testable concepts (faking behaviour); (2) Explanation (what are the origins of personality?) (3) No school of psychotherapy (4) Empirical validity: Trait measures do not always predict behaviour in situations well (Mishel)
What are the Strengths of Freud's Psychoanalytic theory?
Description; Explanation; Comprehensive; Heuristic value; Applied value
What is Freud's theory high in description?
Because he provides a comprehensive description of personality and the origins of personality structure
Is Freuds theory high in explanation?
In SOME concepts yes. Especially in the explanation of defence mechanisms.
Is Freuds theory high in empirical validity and testable concepts? Why or why not?
Some are. We know defence mechanisms exist and can be tested. Also there is support for anal and oral personality types Aggressive humour can also be cathartic:
Is Freud's theory comprehensive?
Yes it can explain many types of behaviour
Is Freud's theory high on Heuristic value?
Definatly, it has stemmed a lot of research and disagreement. Also initiated the Neo-Freudians; Also first psychotherapeutic school; Defense mechanisms; Role of unconscious minds;
Applied value for Freud's theory?
Yes, stimulated research into the psychological treatment of individual's in a more humane manner
Is Freud's theory Parsimonious?
It is perhaps to parsimonious, does only two instincts really motivated all behaviour?
Is Freud's theory empirically valid?
Lack of scientific support. Reliance on case study method. Objectivity is questioned as all content and meaning was subjectively viewed and decided upon by Freud's lense
What are the criticisms of Freud's model?
Overly parsimonious; Empirical Validity; Testable concepts
Overemphasis on ___
Time-consuming and expensive ______
are secondary criticisms of Freud's theory
environment; sex; therapy; sexist;
The _______ approach provides a bridge between personality and biology
What are some strengths of the BIOLOGICAL APPROACH?
Testable concepts (physiology), Heuristic value (first perspective to involved biology and evolution) Parsimony (Eysenck attempted to define three super traits) Empirical validity (A lot of these researchers were academics)
What are some weaknesses of the BIOLOGICAL APPROACH?
Applied value (the biological perspective does not have a school of psychotherapy; also states that an individual cannot change) Explanation (Do all behaviours and emotions serve ONLY an evolutionary purpose?)
What are some criticisms of the COGNITIVE APPROACH
Empirical validity (Kelly's theory not subject to experimental rigour, also interpretation of the REP test can be problematic)
What are strengths of the the COGNITIVE APPROACH?
Applied value (many schools of psychotherapy) Testable concepts (some methods of assessing an individuals construct system) Description (Ellis theory very clear); Heuristic bale (Very popular in the UK; also rise of cognitive psychology)
What are the strengths of the HUMANISTIC approach?
• Description – good face validity
• Heuristic value – moved from the pessimism of psychoanalytic to optimism; growth of positive psychology
• Empirical validity – person centred therapy can be good, but quite subjective
Applied value – YES therapy, education, workplace, self-help
What are criticisms of the HUMANISTIC approach?
• Description – limited total description of behaviour, does not explain behaviour, biology is not referenced
• Explanation – inconsistencies in Maslow’s theory
• Testable concepts – very hard testable concepts, how do we measure self-actualisations?
• Parsimonious – too simple, does not account for psychopathology
• Comprehensiveness – limited, except later in Roger’s life;
• Also person-centred therapy may not be useful for those with sever psychological disorders
Is the person centred therapy of the HUMANISTIC approach useful in sever psychological disorders?
Is the HUMANISTIC approach parsimonious?
It is TOO parsiomonious