abnormal 2220 > FINAL EXAMM AHHHHHHH > Flashcards

Flashcards in FINAL EXAMM AHHHHHHH Deck (251):

What is a confounding variable?

any factor occurring that makes the results unpredictable


______ create in the controlled conditions of the laboratory aspects that are comparable to the phenomenon under the study (ex they would make bulimic people binge eat and then ask them questions during it)

Analogue models


What is generalizability?

the extent to which results apply to every one with a particular disorder.


what is statistical significance?

probability that obtaining the observed research findings merely by chance is small


what is clinical significance?

degree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems


What is the patient uniformity myth?

the tendency to see all patients as one homogenous group, ignoring the individual differences.


What are some downsides to using case studies?

sometimes coincidences occur that are irrelevant to the study, which lead to mistaken conclusions


what is a correlation?

a statistical relationship between two variables


what is a positive correlation?

association between two variables in which one increases and one decreases (high associated with high)


what is negative correlation?

association between two variables in which one increases and one decreases (low associated with high)


What is epidemiology research?

(correlational) the study of the incidence, distribution, and consequences of a particular problem or set of problems in a population


(epidemiology) one strategy to is to determine the ____ of a disorder-- the estimated number of new cases during a specific period.



What is prevalence?

the number of people with a disorder at any one time.


What is an experiment?

testing something by manipulating the independent variable, looking for causality


what are clinical trials?

a group of experiments used to determine the effectiveness and safety of treatment.


what is a randomized clinical trial?

experiments that employ randomization of participants into each experimental group


what are controlled clinical trials?

experiments that rely heavily on controlled conditions to be used for comparison purposes


What is a randomized control trial?

a mixture of a controlled trial and randomized trial.


What is treatment outcome research?

studies of the effectiveness of clinical interventions, including comparison of competing treatments


What is a double blind control?

a variant of the placebo control group procedure, where both the participants and the testers are blind to who is receiving what treatment. this reduces tester bias, as well as biases from the participants.


What is comparative treatment research?

when you test two different treatments on two or more comparable groups an see what one is better or whatever


What are single case experimental designs?

the systematic study of individuals under a variety of experimental conditions. usually focuses on one individual for a bunch of experiments.but can use up to several people in one experiment (b.f. skinner)


What is repeated measurement?

behaviours are measure several times instead of once before you change the independent variable. often used in single case experimental designs, and gives a better look at how the patient is doing during treatment


When reading graphs what is variability?

degree if change in a phenomenon over time


When reading graphs what is a trend?

the direction of change of a behaviour or behaviours


What is a withdrawal design?

it is used in single-subject research to determine whether the independent variable is responsible for changes in behaviour. has 3 parts: persons conditions evaluated before treatment (to establish a base line) then, the change in independent variable, then a withdrawing of treatment to bring them back to base line, to see if what they were doing actually had an effect


is a withdrawal design always a good idea?

no it may be unethical to stop a treatment that seems to be working


What isa multiple baseline?

used in single case studies, and rather than stopping the intervention to se whether it is effective, the researcher starts treatment at different times across settings. this increases internal validity


what are endophenotypes?

mechanisms that ultimately contribute to the underlying problems causing the symptoms and difficulties experienced by people with psychological disorders


in ____ studies scientists simply examine a behavioural pattern or emotional trait in the context of the family.

Family studies


What is a Proband?

the family member with the trait singled out for the study


What are adoption studies?

scientists identify adoptees who have a particular behavioural pattern and attempt to locate first degree who were raised in another family and see if they have similar disorder. this is used to see nature vs nurture type deal


What are twin studies?

studies about monozygotic twins (identical) or dizygotic twins (fraternal) to see how they grow up ect Nature vs nurture


what is genetic linkage analysis?

Studies that seek to match the inheritance pattern of a disorder to that of a genetic marker; this helps researchers establish the location of the gene responsible for the disorder.


What is a genetic marker?

inherited characteristic for which the chromosomal location of the responsible gene is known


What are association studies?

they compare markers in large groups of people with particular disorder to people without the disorder


what do researchers do to help prevent mental illness

they look at selective prevention, promote health ect.


What is cross-sectional design?

researchers take a cross section of a population across the different age groups and compare them on some characterisitcs


What are cohorts?

participants from each age group in a cross sectional design study


What is the cohort effect?

observation that people of different age groups also differ in their values and experiences. this is a drawback of cross sectional design


What is a longitudinal design?

following a group of people over time rather than at specific times in their life.


What is the cross generational effect?

it involves trying to generalize the findings to groups whose experiences are very different from those of the study participants. (like bitch you dont know me!)


What is a sequential design?

a combination of a longitudinal and cross sectional design which involves repeated study of different cohorts over time.


are all symptoms of mental illnesses the same around the world?

no they may present themselves differently around the world and it is beneficial to compare findings


is replication important in abnormal psychology?



What is informed consent?

a research participants formal agreement to cooperate with the study following full disclosure of the nature of the research and the participants role in it.


What are somatic symptom disorders?

disorders involving extreme and long lasting focus on multiple physical symptoms for which no medical cause is evident; previously known as somatization disorders


What are dissociative disorders?

disorders i which individuals feel detached from themselves or their surroundings, and reality, experience, and identity may disintegrate


What is the diagnostic criteria for somatic symptom disorder?

1. one or more somatic symptoms that are distressing or result in disruption of daily life
2. excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviours related to the somatic system or associated health concerns
3. the state of being symptomatic is persistent for more than 6 months


What is illness anxiety disorder?

formerly known as hypochondriasis; involves severe anxiety over belief in having a disease, or developing a disease without any evident physical cause.


What is the diagnostic criteria for illness anxiety disorder?

1. preoccupation with having/acquiring a serious illness
2. somatic symptoms are not present, or if they are only in mild intensity, and the preoccupation is excessive
3. there is hight levels of anxiety about health
4. individual performs excessive health related behaviours
5. preoccupation has lasted for over months
6. the illness related preoccupations is not explained better by any other mental disorder


are mood disorders often comorbid with somatic disorders?



somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder are characterized by anxiety or fear that one has a serious disease. therefore, the essential problem is ____-



patients with panic disorders also misinterpret physical symptoms as the beginning of their next ____

panic attack


what are the average statistics of somatic symptom disorder?

6.7-16.6 % . more often than not are women around 60% are women


faulty interpretation of physical signs and sensations as evidence of physical illness is central, so almost everyone agrees that these disorders (somatic symptom and anxiety illness disorders) are basically disorders of ___ or ____ with strong ____ contributions

cognition, perception, emotional


(somatic symptom and anxiety illness disorders) a number of investigators have confirmed that these patients show enhanced ______________

perceptual sensitivity to illness cues


does evidence show that SSD runs in families?

yes it doeeesssss


what factors may contribute to SSD?

stressful life events, a disproportionate incidence of disease in their family when they were children, and social or interpersonal influence. also if someone is given special attention because of a sickness they may be more willing to be 'sick' because of the attention (playing the sick role)


in its severe form this disorder SSD (Somatic symptom Disorder) is strongly linked in family and genetic studies to _______

antisocial personality disorder


One model with some support suggests that SSD and ASPD share a _______ based disinhibition syndrome characterized by impulsive behaviour



Treatment of Somatic symptom Disorder and anxiety illness disorder?

even though fucking earlier in the text it said that these individuals don't get help from reassurance that they are fine, it says that this is the best way. reassurance and education are supposed to be the best help smfh. also CBT i guess


a related SSD is called psychological factors affecting medical condition, which is?

pain caused by a known medical condition that is adversely affected by one or more psychological or behavioural factors. basically it worsens the preexisting condition


What are conversion disorders?

generally they have to do with physical malfunctioning, such as paralysis or blindness, without physical or organic pathology. (ex. someone going bind when their eyes are functioning properly)


What is malingering?

faking it


Diagnostic criteria for Conversion disorder

1. one or more symptoms of altered voluntary or sensory function
2. clinical findings provide evidence of incompatibility between the symptom and recognize neurological or medical conditions
3.symptom or deficit is not better explained by another medical or mental disorder
4. they symptoms or deficit causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning


What are factitious disorders?

the symptoms are under voluntary control, as with malingering, but the person has no obvious reason for voluntarily producing the symptoms except to assume the sick role


can people induce factitious disorders on other people?

yes there are cases where mothers have made their children sick in order to get more attention :( this is called factitious disorder imposed on another.


how prevalent is conversion disorder?

those who are referred to neurologists about 30% of people they see have this..


Causes of conversion disorder

they have usually experienced a traumatic event, that must be escaped by all costs, and this is used as an escape behaviour


how do you treat conversion disorder?

identify the traumatic life event, then work hard not to reinforce or support any consequences of conversion symptoms.


What is derealization?

loss of your sense of reality and the loss of the external world.


What is depersonalization-derealization disorder?

repeated experiences of feeling detached from his or her own thoughts or body. they may feel as though they are outside their body as an observer. individuals who have this know they feel this way, and know it isnt right


what causes depersonalization-derealization disorder?

traumatic life events such as rape or giving birth


What is dissociative amnesia?

a broader term used to talk about forgetting who someone is ect.


what is generalized amnesia?

related with dissociative amnesia, is used to describe people who are unable to remember anything, including who they are. can be life long


what is localized or selective amnesia?

related with dissociative amnesia, a failure to recall specific events, usually traumatic, that occur during a specific period. this is far more common than generalized amnesia


what is dissociative fugue?

memory loss around a specific incident, usually brought on by a intolerable situation such as a fight and people find themselves in a new place with no idea how they got there, may also only involve a loss of self in which when they return to normal they can remember most of what they did


What is dissociative trace disorder?

an almost possession causing a trance like state and is seen often in religious circles, and only becomes a problem when the state is undesirable


What is Dissociative identity disorder? (DID)

a number of new identities all simultaneously co-existing inside one body and mind. some may even have new voices and behaviours ect. can cause people to do things they normally wouldnt under that particular alter ego, or 'alter'


a very large percentage of ____ patients have simultaneous psychological disorders

Dissociative identity disorder


Causes of Dissociative identity disorder?

extreme Child abuse seems to be the main cause. but it is seen as an extreme need to escape or 'dissociate' a horrible situation


When does the vulnerability window for Dissociative identity disorder close?

approx. 9 years of age


Can false memories be 'implanted' in children or people so they think its real?

yes it can be done, sometimes it happens accidentally by therapists trying to help with Dissociative identity disorder


Treatment of amnesia disorders?

sometimes amnesia gets better on its own and prevention of future episodes include dealing with traumatic event, and dealing with and remembering what happened when they were in that state.


treatment of Dissociative identity disorder?

psychotherapy is often used with results. usually they identify triggers and show them how to deal with the triggers. hypnosis is often used


What are mood disorders?

they are disorders characterized by gross deviations in mood


What is a major depressive episode?

an extremely depressed mood state that lasts for at least 2 weeks and includes cognitive symptoms (such as indecisiveness and worthlessness), and disturbed physical functions (such as altered sleeping patterns, significant changes in appetite and weight or a notable loss in energy) loss of interest and an inability to experience any pleasure from life


What is Mania?

an abnormally exaggerated elation, joy or euphoria. overactivity. also depression can be a part of mania


What is a hypomanic episode?

a less severe version of a manic episode that does not cause marked impairment in social occupationaal functioning and needs to only last 4 days


what is unipolar mood disorder?

when a patient only experiences mania, or depression


what is bipolar mood disorder?

swinging from mania to depression


What is having 'mixed features'?

experiencing mania and depression at the same time


What is considered full remission when looking at mood disorders?

two months between episodes


What is a major depressive disorder?

defined by the absence of manic, or hypomanic before or during the episode. along with depression and what comes along with it obvs


when is a disorder considered recurrent and why is it important?

if two or more major depressive episodes occur and were separated by two or more months. it is important because it predicts the future course of the disorder, and shows it might have a family link (genes)


What is persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)?

it shares many of the symptoms with major depressive disorder, but differs in its course and may have fewer symptoms. it also remains relatively unchanges/the same for long periods of time (at least one or two years and cannot be symptom free for more than two months)


Does major depressive disorder have a higher prevalence of comorbidity than persistent depressive disorder?

no, persistent depressive disorder has a higher prevalence of comorbidity


What is double depression?

when you suffer from both major depressive episodes and persistent depressive disorder. this happens in roughly 22% of individuals with persistent depressive disorder


in addition t to rating severity of the episode as mild moderate, or severe, clinicians use 8 basic specifiers to describe depressive disorders. what are the 8 specifiers?

1. psychotic features (hallucination, delusions are possible)
2. anxious distress
3.mixed features
4. melancholic features (physical symptoms; loss of libido ect)
5. atypical features
6. catatonic features (catalepsy; muscles are waxy and semi rigid)
7. peripartum onset (giving birth may bring on depression)
8. seasonal pattern (winter depression ect)


what is the mean onset age of major depressive disorder?



___% of individuals go into remission from major depressive disorder before a year (usually around 9 months)

90, although if it lasts for more than a year you chances of beating it slowly decline :(


childhood onset depression is associated with:

1. greater chronicity
2. relatively poor prognosis
3. stronger likelihood of the disorder running in the family


What is integrated grief?

the finality of death and its consequences are acknowledged and the individual adjusts to the loss


if you do not deal with the grief can it become a disorder?

yes and it involves thoughts of suicide and an inability to look into the future


What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder?

extreme emotional reaction during the premenstural period


What is disruptive mood dysregulation disorder?

a condition in which a child has chronic negative moods such as anger and irritability without any accompanying mania


What is bipolar II disorder?

a disorder in which major depressive episodes alternate with hypomanic episodes rather than full manic episodes


what is bipolar I disorder

a disorder with major depressive episodes which alternate with full manic episodes


What is cyclothymic disorder?

a chronic alteration of mood elevation and depression that does not reach the severity of manic or major depressive episodes. people with this tend to stay in a particular mood for many years with relatively few years of neutral. this mist last for 2 years


What is the rapid-cycling specifier?

unique to bipolar I and II is when an individual moves quickly in and out of depressive or manic episodes. at least 4 manic episodes within a year. has a considerably higher probability of suicide


what is the average onset for bipolar I and II

I: 18
II: 22
they develop very fast, and is very rare that it develops after the age of 40


is suicide common with bipolar disorder?

yes, it is 4x more likely that someone with just depression


What is childhood depression (and mania) often misdiagnosed as?



What is the earliest an individual can have depression?

there have been cases of 3 month old babies


__ to ___ percent of nursing home residents may experience major depressive episodes

18, 20 and risk doubles if the individual has had a stroke


___ disorders often accompany depression in the elderly



Highest and lowest rates of depression in the world?

high: america
low: japan


is creativity believed to be increased during manic episodes?

to some extent yes, the text talks about famous poets who a high amount had major depressive disorder with manic episodes and says they were at their best during the manic episodes


are mood disorders heritable?

according to Twin studies it seems there is a genetic component. one study says if one twin is unipolar the other one has a 80% change of having it as well


genetic contributions to depression fall in the range of ____ for woman and significantly _____ for men

40%, less. this also mean 60 to 80% is due to environmental factors


according to the permissive hypothesis, when _____ levels are low, other neurotransmitters are permitted to range more widely, become dysregulated and contribute to mood irregularities like depression. a drop in ____ would be one of the consequences

serotonin, norepinephrine


What is the relationship between l-dopa and dopamine with depression and mania?

l-dopa is a dopamine agonist and higher levels of dopamine have been correlated with mania


depression often inhibits this type of sleep

deep sleep or slow wave sleep


is there a genetic vulnerability when it comes to depression and bipolar disorders?

yes some people are just more likely to get it when they encounter stressful life situations. also the type of stress and your current life situation play a huge role


What is the learned theory of depression?

a theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives


What is the depressive cognitive triad?

individuals who make cognitive errors in thinking negatively about 'themselves', their 'immediate world' and their 'future'


what is the relationship with depression and marriage?

it can be the cause of depression, and depression can also be a cause of divorce :(


why are gender roles for women harmful in relation to depression?

women are more likely to be depressed than men, and one reason is because woman often feel they arent in control of their lives because of gender roles.


does having some one to confide in actually make a difference in whether someone becomes depressed?

yes, it helps prevent it


True or false: evidence shows that activation of stress hormones over long period can turn on specific genes producing term structural changes in the brian



What are the 3 types of antidepressants used for mood disorders?

tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MOA) , and the newest SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)


how do tricyclics work?

its not sure how they work, but they block the reuptake of certain transmitters allowing them to pool in the synapse. it mostly works with down regulating norepinephrine. but they have very bad side effects and many stop taking them


how do MOA inhibitors work?

they block the enzyme monoamine oxidase that breaks down norepiniphrine and serotonin. this causes pooling in the synapse and eventually leads to a desensitization


how do SSRI's work?`

they specifically block the presynaptic uptake of serotonin, temporarily increasing the amount of serotonin at the receptor site. the long term mechanism is unknown,but it seems to steadily increase the amount of serotonin.


what is st. johns wort?

a natural treatment of depression, that has little scientific backing, but is said to work best with mildly depressed patients. does not mix well with other antidepressants


can you just stop taking antidepressants?

no you must ween yourself off them as they are working on your brain essentially


T/F antidepressants can mess with pregnant womens fetu



what is lithium?

it is a natural element used for depression and bipolar disorder. it is unsure how it works but id believed it limits the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine . works well with bipolar initially, but mnany relapse. also people often stop using it as they want that manic high. it also does not prevent suicide


What is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

used to be a horrible treatment, but now is safer and is used as a last resort. an electric shock is administered to a patient. we dont know how it works but may be linked to levels of serotonin, and a promotion of neurogenesis in the hippocampus.


what is transcranial magnetic stimulation?

another therapy using electromagnetic pulses and has some benefit with less side effects.


how does cognitive therapy with mood disorders?

they talk about thought patterns and try an correct negative thought behaviours, or depressive errors, and attack underlying schemas surrounding the disorder


What is interpersonal psychotherapy? (IPT)

it focuses on resolving problems in existing relationships and learning to form important new relationships.
has 3 steps to resolving relationships:
1. negotiation stage: both partners are aware it is a dispute, and they are trying to renegotiate it
2. impasse stage: the dispute smoulders beneath the surface and results in low level resentment, but no attempts are made to resolve it
3. resolution stage: the partners are taking some action, such as divorce.. or other


how successful is interpersonal psychotherapy?

about 50 to 70% benefit from it, but it seems not to last for very long, in adults but does show it greatly helps youth


does combining drug therapy and CBT or IPT have good results?

yes, but mostly just for preventing replapse


What is maintenance treatment?

combination of continued psychosocial treatment or medication designed to prevent relapse following therapy


do people with bipolar disorder benefit from combined therapies?

yes it seems they do


why are the suicide rates in canada lower than in the states?

canada has better gun controls


as you might expect from the incidence of depression in aboriginal people, their suicide rate is _______

extremely high


for teen agers suicide is the ______ leading cause of death



regardless of age ____ commit suicide more than _____, except in china

men, women


What is suicide ideation?

thinking seriously about suicide


although _____ commit suicide more often then _____, _____ attempt suicide at least 3 more times more often

males, women, females


Why does suicide happen?

mostly because people think they dont have a support system or are alone in the world. but also when people lose their identities (fatalistic suicide)


What is a psychological autopsy?

post-mortem psychological profile of a suicide victim constructed from interviews with people who knew them before their death, and is used to find those who are at risk, and to help prevent suicide.


does suicide have genetic factors and run in families?

yes it does


a variety of evidence suggests that low levels of _____ may be associated with suicide and violent suicide



do all people who commit suicide have psychological disorders?

no but almost 90% do. alcohol and substance abuse can play a role in suicide. and stressful life events pushed people (with disorders or not) over the edge


is suicide influenced by the media?

yes it is, if the media has recently glorified some suicide there is always an increase in suicides afterwards :(


how do you prevent suicide?

look for those at risk and give them help. suicide prevention is a huge help as well. another important step is to restrict people from having access to lethal weapons, and behavioural therapy works


What is bulimia nervosa?

out of control eating episodes (binges) which are followed by induced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, excessive exercise, or other ways to purge wanting to be thin


what is anorexia nervosa?

the individual eats nothing attempting to lose weight, and often become extremely skinny/underweight


can people with anorexia nervosa die?

yes they can and often do


What is an early warning sign of bulimia nervosa?

excessive exercise


does purging for bulimia actually work?

no more often than not the calories are already absorbed up to 50%


What are some medical consequences of chronic bulimia?

swollen face from constant vomiting, ruined dental hygiene, electrolyte imbalance, heart disruption, intestinal problems, and loss of gag reflex


what disorders are often comorbid with bulimia?

substance abuse, mood disorders (depression)


do people with anorexia nervosa see that they have a problem?

no they dont


What are the 2 subtypes of anorexia?

the restricting type: individuals limit calorie intake
the binge eating/ purging type (they rely on purging and they are purging way less food than bulimics)


body weight below ___ body weight is considered anorexic, but most people who seek help have below ___ to ___

12, 25 to 30


medical consequences of anorexia

loss of menstruation, dry skin, brittle hair or nails, intolerance to cold, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems (electrolyte imbalance)


what disorders are often present with anorexia?

anxiety disorders as well as OCD, Suicide


What is Binge eating disorder?

extreme binging without the purging after, usually in result to trying to lose weight through dieting.


is being a homosexual a risk factor for bulimia?



is bulimia a culture bound disorder?

yes it is (western cultures)


is anorexia a cultural bound disorder?

no its not


is bulimia and anorexia primarily a female disorder?

yes they both are, there are exceptions though


Why have bulimia and anorexia become more prevalent?

the glorification of skinniness


if girls diet at an early age are they more likely to develop an eating disorder?

yes, but its not like if you diet you will get one lol


is there a high demand on athletic women and men which could cause eating disorders



family pressures can also lead to eating disorders?

yeah duh


is there a genetic compontent to eating disorders?

yes if someone in the family has one the individual is 4 to 5 times more likely to develop one


people with anorexia and bulimia share ______ traits and those traits likely play a role in their disorder



individuals with eating disorders may have some of the same biological vulnerabilities as those with ______

anxiety disorders


drug treatment for anorexia, and bulimia?

has not been found to be helpful for anorexia, and antidepressants some times work for bulimia, but dont have great long term effects


psychosocial treatments for bulimia and anorexia?

they tend to focus on their low self esteem and distoreted self image, but also look at the health deficits caused by purging and binge eating


which therapy is the best for bulimia?



What therapy is the best for BED?

CBT, as well as self help procedures


goal of treatment for anorexia?

getting the weight back on, and then focusing on CBT and with the help of a nutritionist to keep the weight on. the family is usually included in this. (this process also starts with a visit to the hospital)


what are dyssomnias?

involve trouble getting falling sleep


what are parasomnias?

abnormal events that occur during sleep waking the individual


what is a polysomnographic evaluation?

when the patient spends one or more nights sleeping in a lab to be monitored for sleep patterns


what is sleep efficiency?

the amount of time actually spent asleep


What are micro sleeps?

a part of insomnia where a person eventually falls asleep for several seconds or slightly longer, as a result of being up for so long.


What is insomnia?

a condition where insufficient sleep interferes with normal functioning


prevalence of insomnia?

almost 1/3 of the population says they have some sort of sleeping distruption


causes of insomnia?

low body temperatures may have a effect, or those very sensi to noise. also anxiety about how much sleep you are getting can play a role. cultural and familial factors play a role as well


What is rebound insomnia?

when someone tries to self medicate with sleeping pills then stops using them, thinking they still have a sleeping problem. basically taking sleeping aids is a cycle cause it perpetuates the problem


what is hypersomnolence disorder?

it involves sleeping too much, and can involve sleep attacks lol


what is sleep apnea?

people who have problems breathing while sleeping thus they are woken up.


what is narcolepsy?

a sudden loss of muscle tone, and basically they fall asleep , and can last from several seconds to several minutes


What are breathing related disorders?

people who's breathing is disrupted causing them to wake up (sleep apnea)


What are the two types of sleep apnea?

1. when airflow stops despite continued activity by the respiratory system
2. when the respiratory system stops all together for a brief amount of time


What is circadium rythm sleep wake disorder?

characterized by disturbed sleep brought on y the brains inability to synchronize its sleep patters with the patterns of day and night


treatment of circadium rythm sleep wake disorder?

melatonin is used as well as sitting in front of specific light sources to reset the cycles


medical treatments for insomnia?

benzos are sometimes used as well as prescribed sleeping pills. these have draw backs as they are addictive


to help with hypersomnolence or narcolepsy physicicians usually prescribe____

stimulants (meth lol), (or are put on antidepressants cause they prevent REM sleep )


treatment for seep apnea?

usually a machine is used to help with breathing


can anxiety treatment work for sleep problems? are there any other treatments that work?

yes that have proven to be effective. stimulus control such as not listening to music before bed or not watching tv before bed also has proven benificial. also not staying in bed for more than you are actually sleeping works well


can CBT be used for insomnia?

yes, it is usually paired with medication and shows good results


What are parisomnias?

abnormal events that occur during or that twilight time between sleep (sleep talking, teeth grinding ect)


When do nightmares usually occur?

during REM sleep


what is another term for sleepwalking? and what is it?

somnambulism, and it occurs during NREM, and are probably acting out a dream or something


are sleep problems linked with other mental illnesses?

yes sleep is super important.


What is behavioural medicine?

an array of therapy methods based on principles of behaviour and cognitive science as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. it considers specific behaviours rather than inferred conflict as legitimate target change


What is health psychology?

a subfield of behavioural medicine that studies psychological factors important in health promotion maintenance


AIDS is a disease of the immune system that is directly affected by ______



What is the best way to deal with aids?

large scale behaviour modification to prevent acquisition


What is general adaption syndrome?

sequence of reactions to sustained stress described by hans selye. these stages are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion, which may lead to death


define stress

the physiological response of the individual to a stressor


when stimulated by this hormone (cortisol) during the HPA axis activity, the hippocampus helps ______ the stress response

turn off


(according to a study) Those who developed psychological disorders or who were highly ______ became chronically ill at significantly higher rate than those who were ______ and free from psychological disorders. this suggests that the same types of stress related psychological factors that ______ to psychological disorders may also contribute to the later development of ________, and that stress, anxiety, and depression are closely related

Stressed, well adjusted, contribute, physical disorders


What is self efficacy?

a persons perception that he or she has ability to cope with stress or challenges


They found that the chance a participant would get sick was directly related to how much ____ the person has experienced



a ______ and _______ cognitive style protects against developing a cold

positive, optimistic


What is psychoneuroimmunology?

the study of psychological influences on the neurological responding implicated in our immune response.


has stress shown to influence the progression of HIV/AIDS

yes it has, tests have show that individuals with stress management have suppressed the disease better than those without stress coping mechanisms .


Other than stress reduction where can we see psychological factors play a role in AIDS/HIV treatment?

medication compliance, which is very important.


What is psycho-oncology?

the study of psychology on cancer


does stress management/ mindfulness help with cancer?

studies show that yes it does, pain management is huge and takes a toll on a individual, so learning to deal with the stresses of that help greatly


What are strokes?

they are temeporary blockages of blood vessels leading leading to the brain causing brain damage. often associated with cardiovascular disease


What is hypertension?

high blood pressure, which can lead to stroke


what causes hypertension?

a small amount can be traced back to abnormalities such as kidney disease but most are stress related or called essential hypertension (which has no physical cause)


are white people more likely to have hypertension?

no black people are the most likely


psychological factors, such as _______, _________, and again level of stress have been used to explain individual differences in blood pressure

personality, coping style


a variety of studies show that ______, _______ and ______ combined with poor coping skills are implicated in coronary heart disease

Stress, anxiety, anger


what are type A behaviour patterns (coronary heart disease)?

essentially a type A personality, so they are high strung and at more risk for coronary heart disease


What are type B behaviour patterns? (coronary heart disease)

essentially a type B personality, so more relaxed and at lower risk for coronary heart disease


What is acute pain?

it typically follows a injury and disappears once it heals of is treated.


what is Chronic pain?

pain that may begin as acute pain, but does not decrease over time, even when the injury has healed


can chronic pain take everything from your life? (job, fun, ect)

yes lol its v serious


What is pain catastrophizing?

an exaggerated negative response brought to bear during actual or anticipated painful experience. this leads to rumination about the pain, and can make the existing pain worse, or create a disability as the individual is afraid of doing things.


What a some coping methods for phantom limb pain?

looking in a full length mirror for several minutes each morning so the brain can register that its not there.


What is operant control of pain behaviour?

when chronic pain persists because of sympathy or a feeling of helplessness brought on by others


What is the gate control theory?

according to this theory, nerve impulses from painful stimuli make their way to the spinal column and from there to the brain. an area called dorsal horns works as a gate and if opened transmits pain sensations. brain signals may effect the opening of this gate


Pain differences between men and women?

men may have better opioid systems, and can deal with some pain better but women have another specific pathway for pain and helps deal with birthing and that woman are :S


What is chronic fatigue syndrome?

incapacitating exhaustion following only minimal exertion, accompanied by fever, headaches, muscle and joint pain, depression and anxiety, and has been liked to extreme stress, and poor self-image which eventually manifests itself as CFS


What are some psychosocial treatments of physical disorders?

biofeedback is supposed to help and works with helping the patient control specific things like heart rate and can even lower blood pressure.
relaxation and meditation which are used to relax msucles and deal with mental states which could be causing stress


can pain reduce the number of natural killer cells? (immunity)

yes it can!


what is a relaxation response?

used in meditation, a person silently repeats a mantra to minimize distraction by closing the mind to intruding thoughts. this helps reduce stress


What is a comprehensive stress-reduction and pain reduction program?

a program that people closely monitor their stress levels and what could be causing it, they also monitor any somatic symptoms that are accompanied by stress. once they have learnt to monitor stress they are taught deep muscle relaxation, then are taught how negative thought impact their lives, and how unrealistic most of them are. finally coping strategies are taught for every day problems